Polygon - this is ... The meaning of the word "polygon" :: syl.ru

Among the words that suddenly received several additional values ​​were a polygon. This concept has long been associated with military equipment and equipment. The most popular synonym is shooting. And what is the meaning of the concept of "landfill" at present?

Meaning of the word

In the direct value of the word "polygon" is a specific area of ​​terrain, designed to test any kinds of weapons, devices and training with personnel. The word leads its origin from the Greek language: πολυ means "a lot", γωνιἀ - angles. Judging by the initial values ​​of the parts, the polygon is a flat polygon. In general, this definition corresponds to the use of this concept in modern vocabulary. But there are differences.

Polygon: meaning words

Until the middle of the 20th century, various workouts with personnel and weapons are often described in military literature. In the initial meaning, the polygon is a place for artillery exercises. The first shootings arose simultaneously with primitive powder guns. Prior to this, the place for military trials successfully replaced the shooting range - the area of ​​the terrain on which archers, infantry and cavalry trained are the main units of the ancient and medieval troops.

Polygon is

Currently, the concept of "polygon" is expanded and has several meanings. Most often, this word is still associated with war and defense. In military business, all polygons are divided into several features: constant or temporary, military and civil and so on.

Nuclear polygons are designed to test nuclear weapons. Rocket - for trial and serial launches of civil and military missiles. One of the most famous nuclear polygons in the world was Semipalatinsky, located near Kurchatov, the Russian Federation. Currently, this object is closed for testing.

Test polygon

The civil test site is designed to test samples of equipment and equipment, which, upon failure, can harm people or the environment. Currently, according to the safety regulations, each enterprise specializing in the release of potentially dangerous finished products should test the test on its own landfill.

How to choose places for polygons

For military tests, terrain is selected with complex landscapes to simulate various combat situations. The optimal size of the shooting is given in this way that the maximum range of the projectile flight is within the zone so that there are no injured civilian and military persons who accidentally hit the shelling.

Polygon meaning words

The modern military polygon is a whole range of buildings of household and defense importance. An excellent illustration of the concept of a newly opened polygon in p. The rules of the Ryazan region intended for training of air paratroopers. By the beginning of 2017, simulators were erected to start training the paratroopers on the square for training the paratroopers, the layouts of aircraft were performed, there are instructions for briefing, the suspended devices.

A new polygon, whose photo can be seen below, is intended for comprehensive preparation for landing from IL-76 and An-2 aircraft, from the Mi-8 helicopter. Designers took care of the arrangement of engineering networks and modern engineering facilities.

Test polygon

Polygons for disposal or processing MSW

Currently, polygons also elegantly call huge dumps, "decorating" the outskirts of our megacities. Such polygons are hopelessly outdated, and now the authorities are finding the possibility of the construction of garbage processing and sorting stations in European samples. New technologies will significantly improve the ecology of urban dies and make the needs of industry in the feedstock.

Polygon in computer graphics

Together with the development of web design, the word "polygon" has acquired a new meaning. Polygon, or polygonal mesh, is a combination of components that determine the form of an object in three-dimensional space. Such components are ribs, planes, vertices, faces. A arbitrary convex polygon in 3D modeling simplifies the perception of the object, its visualization.

Polygon photo.

A brief overview of all the current meaning of the concept of "Polygon" gives a general idea of ​​the multifaceted Russian language. What other values ​​will turn the ancient word - we will find out in the near future.

What is polygons

Polygon is. The meaning of the word "polygon"

Among the words that suddenly received several additional values ​​were a polygon. This concept has long been associated with military equipment and equipment. The most popular synonym is shooting. And what is the meaning of the concept of "landfill" at present?

Meaning of the word

In the direct value of the word "polygon" is a specific area of ​​terrain, designed to test any types of weapons, devices and training with personnel. The word leads its origin from the Greek language: πολυ means "a lot", γωνιἀ - angles. Judging by the initial values ​​of the parts, the polygon is a flat polygon. In general, this definition corresponds to the use of this concept in modern vocabulary. But there are differences.

Polygon: meaning words

Until the middle of the 20th century, various workouts with personnel and weapons are often described in military literature. In the initial meaning, the polygon is a place for artillery exercises. The first shootings arose simultaneously with primitive powder guns. Prior to this, the place for military trials successfully replaced the shooting range - the area of ​​the terrain on which archers, infantry and cavalry trained are the main units of the ancient and medieval troops.

Currently, the concept of "polygon" is expanded and has several meanings. Most often, this word is still associated with war and defense. In military business, all polygons are divided into several features: constant or temporary, military and civil and so on.

Nuclear polygons are designed to test nuclear weapons. Rocket - for trial and serial launches of civil and military missiles. One of the most famous nuclear polygons in the world was Semipalatinsky, located near Kurchatov, the Russian Federation. Currently, this object is closed for testing.

The civil test site is designed to test samples of equipment and equipment, which, upon failure, can harm people or the environment. Currently, according to the safety regulations, each enterprise specializing in the release of potentially dangerous finished products should test the test on its own landfill.

How to choose places for polygons

For military tests, terrain is selected with complex landscapes to simulate various combat situations. The optimal size of the shooting is given in this way that the maximum range of the projectile flight is within the zone so that there are no injured civilian and military persons who accidentally hit the shelling.

The modern military polygon is a whole range of buildings of household and defense importance. An excellent illustration of the concept of a newly opened polygon in p. The rules of the Ryazan region intended for training of air paratroopers. By the beginning of 2017, simulators were erected to start training the paratroopers on the square for training the paratroopers, the layouts of aircraft were performed, there are instructions for briefing, the suspended devices.

A new polygon, whose photo can be seen below, is intended for comprehensive preparation for landing from IL-76 and An-2 aircraft, from the Mi-8 helicopter. Designers took care of the arrangement of engineering networks and modern engineering facilities.

Polygons for disposal or processing MSW

Currently, polygons also elegantly call huge dumps, "decorating" the outskirts of our megacities. Such polygons are hopelessly outdated, and now the authorities are finding the possibility of the construction of garbage processing and sorting stations in European samples. New technologies will significantly improve the ecology of urban dies and make the needs of industry in the feedstock.

Polygon in computer graphics

Together with the development of web design, the word "polygon" has acquired a new meaning. Polygon, or polygonal mesh, is a combination of components that determine the form of an object in three-dimensional space. Such components are ribs, planes, vertices, faces. A arbitrary convex polygon in 3D modeling simplifies the perception of the object, its visualization.

A brief overview of all the current meaning of the concept of "Polygon" gives a general idea of ​​the multifaceted Russian language. What other values ​​will turn the ancient word - we will find out in the near future.

The meaning of the word & laquaco

one. Plot for combat training of troops, as well as for testing various types of weapons, combat and equipment. Training polygon. [I] knew about the grenade breaks only in tactics and artillery courses, but never was on the artillery polygon. Ignatiev, fifty years in the ranks. - "Specialists arrived at the accident site," continued to read Volodya, "including the head of the test landfill of the future high-speed cars of the plant under construction." Caderer, on the city.

2. Playground with equipment for the manufacture of elements of prefabricated construction parts and structures.

[From Greek. πολύγωνος - polygonal]

Source (print version): Dictionary of the Russian language: in 4 tons / wounds, Institute Linguistich. studies; Ed. A. P. Evgenaya. - 4th ed., Ched. - M.: Rus. Yaz.; Poligraphressurs, 1999; (electronic version): Fundamental electronic library

  • Polygon (from Dr.-Greek. Πολυ- - a lot + γωνιἀ - angle; πολυγωνος - letters. Polygon) - specially designated by the state and equipped area of ​​terrain, air or sea surface (land, sky or sea), which is intended for testing various types of weapons and military equipment (weapons, combat and so on), as well as for combat training of troops (forces).

Previously, the polygon is a strengthening of a polygon or a plot for practical artillery shooting. The polygon may be referred to as a research (test) institution (organization). In the explanatory dictionary V. I. Dalya, values ​​are described: Polygon fortification - Reduced, polygonal method of strengthening, and artillery term - a place where learners are going on, tools from guns.

On the basis of the so-called "educational artillery polygons", in 1961, the first individual rocket corps (Orc) were created.

POLYGON , and, m. [from Greek. Poly - a lot and gōnia - angle]. one. A large unlocked area that serves as a place for experienced or training activities and exercises of special troops, shooting range (military.). Artillery P. 2. The location of the fortification fortifications in the form of a polygon (military.). Serf 3. The same as a polygon (mat. Rarely).

A source: "The Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language" edited by D. N. Ushakov (1935-1940); (electronic version): Fundamental electronic library

polygon

1. A large, unnecessary, specially equipped area that serves as a place to test various types of weapons and military equipment, as well as for military exercises.

3. Mat. Inform. the same as a polygon

4. Something located in the form of a polygon on the ground or plan or resembling a polygon

We make a word card better together

Hey! My name is a lamp, I am a computer program that helps to make a word card. I know how to count perfectly, but so far I do not understand how your world works. Help me figure out!

Thank! I will definitely learn to distinguish widespread words from narrowly specialist.

How understands the meaning of the word iconographic (adjective):

Polygon

Polygon - Land of sushi or sea, which is intended for testing various types of equipment, weapons, combat, as well as for combat training of troops.

Content

Classification of polygons

In time of work

By destination

  • Research,
  • Testing (low-temperature, aviation, artillery, anti-aircraft, engineering, mine, rocket, torpedo, tank, etc.)
  • Military (Military Polygon is intended for military exercises or weapons tests and military equipment)
  • Factory (to verify the quality of the manufactured weapons, his shootings, debugging)
  • Training (for combat and educational shooting, bombing, torpedo, as well as for various troops)
  • imitation
  • Miniature Polygons (Training Artillery Polygon, which is a reproduction of the terrain (relief plan on scale usually 1: 300 - 1: 1000), equipped with targets (targets) and a special device that imitating shell breakdowns. The miniature polygon is equipped indoors or open The terrain is intended for learning artillery shooting for land and air targets. It allows you to practically study the rules for shooting artillery and conduct artillery rifle training.

Equipment

Depending on the purpose, the polygon can be equipped with observation points, targeted installations, dugouts, shelters, communications, are supplied with control and measuring instruments, vehicles, etc.

Product types that can be tested on landfills

  • Autotransport
  • Snow removal machines
  • engines
  • Generators
  • brake system
  • equipment
  • Heat insulation materials
  • military equipment
  • Add illustration.
  • Find and arrange in the form of footnotes links to authoritative sources confirming written.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Watch what is a "polygon" in other dictionaries:

POLYGON - (Greek, from Polys many, and Gonia angle). 1) Polygon. 2) Place outside the city, where the artillery teaching is happening, a palfa of guns. 3) In the fortification: a line connecting the angles of two adjacent bastions. A dictionary of foreign words included in ... ... a dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language

polygon - A, m. Polygon m., it. POLYGON & LT; Polygonos & lt; gr. Poly a lot + gonia angle. 1. Mat. Polygon (closed or unclosed). BAS 1. Also, the aforementioned Grudstrais, I wanted to be like this, how to draw this manir and with a circle or ... ... Historical Dictionary of Gallicism of the Russian Language

polygon - Autodrome, polygon, Kapustin Yar, Strelbishche, Planerodrome, Playground, Auto Polygon Mark of Russian Synonyms. Polygon shoots dictionary of synonyms of the Russian language. Practical directory. M.: Russian. Z. E. Alexandrova. 2011 ... Dictionary of Synonyms

Polygon 2. - Genre comedy, parody, horrors Director Pavel Fominenko Producer Pavel Fominenko Screenwriter ... Wikipedia

POLYGON - Polygon, landfill, husband. (from Greek. Poly a lot and gonia angle). 1. A large unnecessary plot that serves as a place for experienced or training activities and exercises of special troops, shooting range (military.). Artillery range. 2. Location of the fortress ... ... Explanatory Dictionary of Ushakov

polygon - Polygon, shooting area ... Dictionary-thesaurus synonyms of Russian speech

Polygon - - type of reinforced concrete production, located outdoors, sometimes having a canopy (roof); It is part of the factories of reinforced concrete products or is an independent enterprise. [Terminological dictionary on concrete and ... ... Encyclopedia of terms, definitions and explanations of building materials

POLYGON - (from Greek. Polygonos polygonal) section of sushi or sea, intended for testing weapons, military equipment, combat training troops ... Big Encyclopedic Dictionary

POLYGON - Same as a polygon ... Big Encyclopedic Dictionary

POLYGON - Polygon, a, husband. 1. A large, specially equipped area of ​​sushi or sea for testing various types of weapons, military equipment, for combat exercises. Aviation, artillery, sea clause 2. Place scientific and other tests, samples. Factory ... ... Explanatory Dictionary of Ozhegova

POLYGON - Husband., Greek. polygon, multilateral, barot. Racious reinforcement. Polygonal strengthening method. | Polyon, Artil. The place where the study is going, a palfa of guns. Explanatory dictionary of Daly. IN AND. Dal. 1863 1866 ... Explanatory Dictionary of Daly

What is polygonal graphics?

Examples and lessons

Want to know more about the polygonal schedule? What is it used for? How to do something in this technique? Yes? Then you are a real designer, ready to develop, and grow as a professional!

Of course, polygonal schedule can hardly be called something new, and even more revolutionary. However, it will help to diversify your design and make it individual and recognizable. Yes, and another wagg of fashion at the polygon, which cheering across the Internet, it is difficult to ignore.

In this post, you will learn about landfills and polygonal graphics and see stunning examples of its use. We also collected for you a few lessons that will help you master this technique. And who knows maybe you will draw polygons even cooler than the authors of the works collected here!

What is polygonal graphics?

Polygon (from Greek. Polýgonos is a polygonal), polygonal line (mathematical), a broken line, composed of a finite number of rectilinear segments (links). Under the landfill also understand a closed broken line, i.e., a polygon.

Where are the polygons?

The answer is obvious - in digital graphic, of course! This is a kind of variety of digital art. Initially, polygonal graphics appeared in 3D modeling to create a video game. Due to the low resolution, such objects had a high rendering rate. Also, the display in the form of a frame allows you to save computer resources and makes it easier to work with the model. Then she has already become popular and in the so-called 2D graph.

What program can I create polygonal images?

If you work in 3D, then for you will be quite natural to do it in 3D MAX, Maya, or Cinema 4D. The last one is so friendly that even a child can draw in it. In general, polygonal graphics are quite easy to create, especially if compared with architectural visualization or photorealistic rendering. It resembles the early days of computer simulation and animation with a touch of modern techniques. And since retro style is always in fashion, almost all designers create it with the help of old techniques.

As you already know, 3D models are created using polygons. The more polygons, the more detailed the model will be. During the final processing (rendering) of the object, it acquires a "smooth" view. The fewer polygons you use at the modeling stage, the more abstract there will be a result. For a pronounced effect, you can turn off the smoothing function in the rendering settings, and then you will get clear faces. It all depends on the effect you want to achieve. The use of low pollifical technology does not mean that the scene will be simple. You can use complex textures, realistic settings for reflections and refractiveness in the environment, etc. Polygonal figures are very reminded by origami and are now at the peak of popularity in graphic design.

You can also create polygonal masterpieces in programs such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW and even Adobe Photoshop. These programs, in contrast to the specific 3D packages, are well acquainted with most designers.

History reference

Do you know that a polygonal design preceded a whole direction in art? At the beginning of the 20th century it was originated and became an incredibly popular expression system. The appearance of the photo only spurla artists, because now it was possible to capture the image in detail, as it really is. Expressionists on the contrary, sought to convey the essence, mood and nature of the object. They deliberately left the details. Nowadays, expressionism is no less popular in both painting and digital art environments.

Outstanding examples

Here are some examples of modern digital art. Perhaps they impress you to create new masterpieces:

Lessons

In this lesson, you will create a mosaic in Adobe Illustrator, consisting of polygons. This simple place will help the free plugin - Scriptographer and your imagination.

Here you will learn how to create a vector polygonal mosaic from a raster image using the free web tool Triangulator and Adobe Illustrator.

In this lesson you will learn how to make portraits with the help of polygons. The author shows how to work with photos using and photoshop and illustrator to make a beautiful portrait in a trendy polygonal graphic style.

This lesson also suits you if you are working in earlier versions of Photoshop.

Detailed video lesson who will teach you to create three-dimensional characters.

Conclusion

Polygonal graphics are a mixture of retro and futurism. The style is not subject to time that can be modified, individualize, and experiment with him to infinity. It always looks stylish, fashionable and originally. Try to work with the polygons, and you will realize that you can no longer without them. We will be glad if you share your ideas on this bill in the comments!

Polygonal graphics. What it is and how to create it

Polygonal figures are very reminded by origami or felling gems. Let's figure it out what polygonal graphics? And why designers like this to use this technique in their works?

Polygon (from Greek. Polýgonos is a polygonal), the polygonal line is a broken line composed of a finite number of rectilinear segments (links). Under the landfill also understand a closed broken line, i.e., a polygon.

Polygonal graphics intellectual

This is a visualization of conscious shape. Artists and designers a polygon helps to simplify, comprehend, and therefore further correctly convey the form and volume of the object.

He helps in three-dimensional graphics. There, the polygon is the minimum surface, the element from which the frames of forms of any complexity are folded. The more polygons, the more detailed the model will be. In three-dimensional graphics, triangles are usually used as polygons.

Polygons are simple, beautiful, laconic and infinitely diverse inspired by many modern designers. Of these, you can make abstract compositions and stylish illustrations of any complexity.

In this article, you will learn a lot about the polygons and polygonal graphics and see wonderful examples of its use. Also, there are several lessons that will help you master this technique.

What program can I create polygonal graphics?

Three-dimensional graphics. There is no definite answer to this question. 3D wizards will prefer undoubtedly do it in 3D MAX, Maya, or Cinema 4D. The last one is so friendly that even a child can draw in it. In general, polygonal graphics are quite easy to create, especially if compared with photorealistic visualization. It resembles the early days of computer simulation and animation with a touch of modern techniques. The fewer polygons you use at the modeling stage, the more abstract there will be a result. For a pronounced effect, you can turn off the smoothing function in the rendering settings, and then you will get clear faces. It all depends on the effect you want to achieve. The use of low pollifical technology does not mean that the scene will be simple. You can use complex textures, realistic reflection settings and refractors in the environment, etc.

2D graphics. You can create polygonal masterpieces in programs such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW and even Adobe Photoshop. These programs, in contrast to the specific 3D packages, are well acquainted with most designers. This method can create stylized, decorative images with stunning color combinations.

And you can also complement polygonal graphics with photos, creating amazing collages that resemble augmented reality and hinting about connections between the real and virtual worlds. Some work are complemented by typography.

And you can also try online polygons generators

TRIANGLIFY.

Very simple generator, which will create low-poly backgrounds with a given palette of colors. You can create a beautiful background for your design. Prepared polygon can be downloaded for free in SVG format.

How to convert a raster to the Polygons online

Functional generator for creating triangular images. Creates a polygonal composition from any raster image. There are a number of settings and the randomization button to obtain random results. After the image is ready you can download it in PNG and SVG formats.

Polygonal logos

Logos for the popularity of polygonal graphics began to create logos in such a style.

Create a polygonal logo in the CorelDRAW program

Polygonal portrait

This technique allows you to create works of any complexity.

In these lessons, it is shown how to create a polygonal portrait

Sources:

http://www.syl.ru/article/295642/poligon-eto-znachenie-slova-poligon http://kartaslov.ru/%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%87%D0% B5% D0% BD% D0% B8% D0% B5-% D1% 81% D0% BB% D0% BE% D0% B2% D0% B0 /% D0% BF% D0% BE% D0% BB% D0% B8% D0% B3% D0% BE% D0% BD http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enviki/54206 http://studio.everypixel.com/ru/blog/what-is-the Polygon-Graphics-Examples-and-Tutorials / http://mediasvod.ru/poligonalnaya-grafika/

The concept of Polygon is often found when it comes to military trials, nuclear weapons, artillery shooting and so on. In the modern world, this term has quite widespread use, and its value goes beyond the limits of military topics.

What is a landfill?

This word is translated from the Greek as a "polygon". In the most common meaning of the word, the polygon is a specially equipped any structure of the land or sea section. Its territory usually has the shape of an irregular polygon, which explains its name. The territory of the landfill may be huge - hundreds of square kilometers. In the perimeter, it usually has special limitations that prevent unauthorized penetration. The polygon may include not only the land plot, but also aqueous and airspace.

barbed wire

For the placement of the polygons, choose areas unsuitable for maintenance activities: deserts, steppes, tundra. This allows minimizing economic damage. Flights can be limited in the polygon airspace.

Classification of polygons

Polygons are different types. According to the accessories they are divided into public and private.

For the purpose of the polygon there are military, nuclear, research, test, factory, civil, training, trashnoe.

Most often, the landfill is a territory equipped with governments for military purposes for military exercises, artillery tests, aviation flights, bombing. Such polygons are often equipped with military cereals, checkpoints, fenced with barbed wire, etc.

Tests of weapons, military equipment, devices are tested on test polygons.

The factory polygon is a place where the techniques and equipment released by the manufacturer are tested.

Special sites can be equipped on civilian landfills, for training or entertainment purposes, such as polygons for role-playing games.

Polygon for nuclear testing

nuclear tests

The first tests of the atomic bomb were held in 1945 in Trinity, New Mexico. Since then, many countries have begun to equip areas for similar tests.

The nuclear polygon is a territory intended for testing nuclear weapons.

Several well-known, but now abandoned polygons of the world:

  • Totsky Polygon (USSR);
  • Envytok (Rep. Marshall Islands);
  • Lake Lobnor (China);
  • Semipalatinsky landfill (USSR, Kazakhstan);
Semipalatinsky polygon
  • Polygon in Nevada;
  • Punheri (North Korea);
  • New Earth (Russia).

Nuclear testing causes terrible harm to ecology. Radiation pollutes huge territories far out beyond polygons. The lands become unsuitable for cattle breeding and crop production. In addition, radioactive contamination, spreading by air, lead to the loss of radioactive precipitation. Finding into the atmosphere, radioactive waste causes great harm to the health of people. Underwater tests of atomic bombs caused a significant damage of ecology of the seas.

Despite this, nuclear polygons are a popular destination for extreme tourism. People do not stop the radioactive threat, and they often go to the former polygons to get acquainted with the history of the test and look at the funnels remaining from the explosions.

Dusting polygons

Human activity contributes to the emergence of a large number of household waste. Polygon of solid household waste is a structure intended for the processing and disposal of solid domestic garbage. There are usually plastic waste, glass, rubber, bones, wood, metals.

Most often, the TBB polygons have the form of a pit and are located far from the residential territories, to avoid damage to people's health. To ensure environmental safety, garbage sites are placed away from green plantings, water bodies and groundwater.

Polygon trash can

In Russia, the situation with garbage grids is unfavorable. For utilization of household waste requires a significant increase in the number of processing equipment. In addition, the system of proper separation of waste has not yet been debugged in Russia: mainly the garbage falls into one bunch.

The biggest garbage sites are in:

  • Chittatong (Bangladesh);
  • New York (USA);
  • Agbogblochi (Havana);
  • Fresh Kill (USA);
  • Puente Hills (USA).

Polygon in mathematics

The concept of the landfill is also found in the exact sciences only in another meaning. The word "polygon" can be used to designate a polygon in geometry. Also, the polygon may have the type of graphics. Polygon Frequencies and Polygon Relative Frequencies This is a curve line connecting the point of a chart representing the probability density.

Thus, the polygon is a multivalued term, used in many areas of activity. Preferably, this concept is used to designate limited places or territories equipped with various needs.

Polygon - Land of sushi or sea, which is intended for testing various types of equipment, weapons, combat, as well as for combat training of troops.

Classification of polygons

In time of work

By destination

  • Research,
  • Testing (low-temperature, aviation, artillery, anti-aircraft, engineering, mine, rocket, torpedo, tank, etc.)
  • Military (Military Polygon is intended for military exercises or weapons tests and military equipment)
  • Factory (to verify the quality of the manufactured weapons, his shootings, debugging)
  • Training (for combat and educational shooting, bombing, torpedo, as well as for various troops)
  • imitation
  • Miniature Polygons (Training Artillery Polygon, which is a reproduction of the terrain (relief plan on scale usually 1: 300 - 1: 1000), equipped with targets (targets) and a special device that imitating shell breakdowns. The miniature polygon is equipped indoors or open The terrain is intended for learning artillery shooting for land and air targets. It allows you to practically study the rules for shooting artillery and conduct artillery rifle training.

Equipment

Depending on the purpose, the polygon can be equipped with observation points, targeted installations, dugouts, shelters, communications, are supplied with control and measuring instruments, vehicles, etc.

Product types that can be tested on landfills

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