Dilution of quails at home for beginners: Basic rules
Bird breeding at home is a very common occupation not only for residents of villages and villages, but also for owners of private houses located in an urban feature, where there are at least a small block of land, where it would be possible to arrange a housekeeping like a birdhouse. One of the birds of feathered, which may be interested in a novice breeder, are quail. Dilution of quails at home for beginners is not such a difficult case with which any person will cope with. It's not just a simple, but also profitable, because if the population is large, then meat and eggs can be realized. In order to weigh everything and against, you need to take into account the main features of breeding.
Quail - Birds "Compact", do not take much space
Business plan for creating a quail farm you can see our article - here.
Economic aspects of quail breeding
Growing quails at home, the owner will inevitably collide not only with profit, but also with expenses. In the conditions of native breeding of the dinds, we are not talking about industrial scales of poultry farms. For this purpose, you need to obtain permits and perform a number of sufficiently harsh conditions that can scare a novice party. In the conditions of the nursery plot, it is unlikely that it is hardly to sell products to large trading networks and supermarkets.
But the supply of eggs and meat of their family, sales on the market or among familiar "warm" customers - what can be achieved. To do this, it will be necessary to invest in finances and fulfill the following conditions:
- Construction or purchase of housing for dinds. These are usually cells, including multi-tiered. There are finished products on the market, but they can be easily made and yourself.
- Equipment of a separate room. Because it goes on the site, you can use the shed, an extension and other households for these purposes. However, even they must be at a minimum to equip - at least heating and lighting.
- Purchase of the bird. There are several options here: you can buy eggs for hatching, but an incubator will need, expensive equipment. You can take chicks to grow and constantly bribe them - then without an incubator you can do. But even without an incubator, you will need at least brudes to grow chicks.
- Stern. With its small sizes, quail consumes a considerable amount of feed, and because the taste of meat depends on the quality of feed. These are also expenses, and regular.
- Recycling. Quail litter has the property to accumulate, because every day a day there are several dozen, and then hundreds of birds will produce it. If the site allows you to build an extensive compost system. And you can simply buy a tank or several barrels, collecting the manure there and export it into permitted places, including under the contract with the assessing organization.
Under the breeding can be converted a garage or a barn
There is profit from the matter too. The bird's heads will be enough to fully provide a large family meat and eggs. Livestock in 100 pcs. Stop also a small private trading. Well, if you get quail largely, then with a flock of 1000 goals you can organize advertising, to carry out sanitary and epidemiological testing and work with purchases or with catering enterprises.
Disadvantages of breeding quail
Conditions for the content of quails at home: General rules
By itself, quail - birds are quite unpretentious, a couple of such feathered can quarter even in a cage of wavy parrots. But if there is a task of breeding so that the individual can normally feed the body weight or be taken, it will be necessary to withstand a number of conditions:
- Space. No matter how compact not to place a quieter, but the place they need to be highlighted in sufficient volume. On the Internet you can find articles that quails easily can be breeding on the balcony. Do not do this for a large number of birds. If they are placed very tightly, females will be worse.
- Temperature. Quail quite demanding to the temperature regime. Excessive overheating causes feather loss, the cold reduces the egg production, the individual ceases to gain weight. Temperatures below zero when the content in captivity is generally dangerous. If the bird is contained on the courtyard in the barn or summer kitchen, it is necessary to provide heating in the winter. In the summer, indoors should not be very hot. The optimal temperature for the content of quails is 18 - 20 degrees.
- Fresh air. To avoid the smell of the bird, you need to envisage the rewriting. Quail - initially wild birds, they are accustomed to the expanses that they partly can replace good ventilation. With the arrangement of the ventilation system, do not overdo it: drafts are harmful and for juveniles, and for adults.
- Illumination. Since the twinkles are contained in the room, they need to provide permanent lighting. The lack of light will affect both the health of the feathered and the eggs they carry. Especially important light for young chickens. Therefore, special lamps are installed in the bar, which give not only light, but also heat.
- Humidity. The presence of a moistened air is very important for the feeding, especially in cellular content in the formation building, where it is quite dry. Humidity is desirable to keep at 70%. In dry air conditions, individuals drink more and, in turn, they eat less, and therefore, slowly add in weight.
Bird should not keep too boring
Cell prices for quail
Cell for quail
One individual lives on average 2 - 3 years, and in the first year of eggs gives more. Meat breeds do not live up to this age, because they gain the necessary mass much faster.
Video - Removers
Cells for quail
Accommodation in which the twists will constantly be located - this is the basis of the whole poultry farm. The owner has two options, each of which has pros and cons:
- Buy ready-made cells;
- Make yourself according to drawings.
Ready cells have a neat look.
The first option is good because you do not need to spend any strength and time, and for those who have no tendency to handmade, it is generally the only way out. Factory cells are made kindly, usually from galvanized steel. They have standard sizes. It is good because it is possible to make up several cells modular multi-storey structures, increasing the livestock without a new area. And the fact that if you have an idea to make a cage for a specific room, factory sizes may not fit into your design.
Structurally, they represent the lattice parallelepipeds with a depth ratio to a height of approximately one to two. As in cells with nursing chickens, the bottom of the cell is lattice, so that the litter falls into the pallet, and the eggs rolled into a special egg-sensitive outside the reach of the inhabitants. Such cells can be put on each other and on the wheeled platform. The approximate cost per cell 1000 * 360 * 560 weighing 22 kg is about 3.5 thousand rubles in the Moscow region.
Make cells with your own hands will be comfortable and much cheaper to those who are familiar with the skills of manual labor and has a necessary tool. If you do not do one cell, but a few, then the benefit is growing.
Step-by-step instructions for assembling cells for adult quail with their own hands
For example, you can take the design of plywood and galvanized steel grids. The sizes of the cell - 100 per 80 cm, height - 40 cm, such parameters are quite enough for the content of 50 heads. If you want to fire the birds, make several smaller cells.
First you need to collect plywood base: roof, bottom and cell walls. Start the phaneer with a pencil and cut with an electrolybiz. You should get: bottom, roof, two side and one rear wall.
For cutting plywood, it is better to use an electric bison
Prices for popular models of electroballs
From the galvanized steel mesh in the pitch of the cells 3 cm Cut the rectangle for the front wall with such a calculation to get two centimeters from the sides for fastening to the plywood. From the same material, make a mesh floor, which will be tilted by 7 degrees at an angle to the horizon - it will allow the eggs to roll into the egg-tier. The latter can be obtained if you carefully cut the grid with a tray.
Through cells should not slip small quail eggs
Collect plywood sheets, twisting them with self-draws. Do not forget to pre-drill holes so that the plywood is not cracked. If you have only a thin material at your disposal, use to connect the corners. The mesh front wall and the bottom with bent inside the edges can be attached with the help of self-tapping screws with a wide hat or trimming of a thin sheet of metal, grabbing it with two screws.
If plywood is fat, then you can twist the screws right in the end
The pallet is also better to perform from galvanized steel, raving and bending the edges - the tightness is optional here. If there are no steel, you can collect it from plywood sheets, only to pre-paint the paint resistant to aggressive exposure in order to make it easier to clean. The pallet becomes under the mesh oblique floor and extracted as far as filling.
Duty from galvanizing is the best
Another embodiment is quite simple - there will be a solid mesh cell. The mesh canvas is cut into size, cuts into a grinder or handcraft for metal. Next bends so that the cell is formed, and the rods can be attached to one to another can be plastic clamps or wire cleans. True, this option is poorly suitable for multi-tiered placement - the design may not withstand.
Video - Small Removers Device
Bruner - Cage for Young
The main purpose of the Brudera is an isolated content of the crumpled chicks before their transfer to the flock. The main difference between the Brawra from the cells for the adult bird is the ability to create a microclimate for chickens in it. If large cells are made sometimes completely mesh, only the bottom for collecting litters and part of the front wall are made in the grid bruders, and the minimum, for ventilation. The remaining surfaces must be solid to create inside their microclimate.
In Bruder, there is no need to make an inclined bottom, but necessarily other equipment: light sources and heat. It is convenient to use infrared mirror lamps, because they give both light and warm. They can be equipped with a thermostat, and inside the cell you need to place a thermometer to monitor the necessary conditions.
In Bruder, it is easy to maintain temperature
Prices for Ready Brother for Chickens
Brother for chickens
Decide on the breed is standing on the basis of the goals you are haunting, starting breeding quails. As with any bird, the quail tribe is distinguished by meat, egg and meat-egg.
Meat breeds are designed for a slaughter. Of course, they carry, but their egg production is small, because most of the nutrients go into a set of body weight. Broilers, which are made by the selection of those who guided the greatest weight by selecting those individuals.
Among meat breeds are the most famous by Pharaoh and White Texas Cockup. Pharaoh is a good breed, the mass of the females may exceed half a kilogram, but quite complicated in the content, demanding to feed. Also in plus it is possible to record the strength of the breed - the chicks are gaining a lot very quickly, and to minuses - a dark plumage that negatively affects the sale of a carcass.
The White Texas Breed also boasts a solid weight - males a little easier (about 350 g), females - more (up to 500 g). Birds have a calm is not aggressive character and are not so demanding like Pharaohs. Kozyrem is their snow-white plumage, which, when plunging, gives a stew a wonderful turning point.
Texas White Breed Cross
In the eggs, the main thing is notching. Growing males and females of the elderly in bird standards of age are going to slaughter. Egg breeds are significantly less by weight, but for them it is not the main indicator.
For a long time known in Russia, the Japanese breed is pierced birds with a characteristic pedestrous plumage of dark shades. Already after a year and a half after the release of the egg, the young twist is capable of rushing. The yoke yield can reach 300 pieces per year. True, it is only in the first year. In subsequent years, egg production drops almost twice - up to 150 - 180 pieces per year.
Among meat-egg rocks is popular with manchuri golden quail. Here is a real breed for a novice. This subspecies of feathered is very unpretentious, eats a little, weight reaches 200 g, and egg production reaches 200 - 250 eggs per year. This allows you to recommend the breed for beginners.
Golden Manchurian Breed
What to pay attention to when buying quails
Quail can be grown from incubation eggs. But the novice poultry is not recommended such a way. Firstly, for this you need an expensive incubator, secondly, it requires the experience that the newcomer is just not. To begin with, it is better to buy an adult bird at the age of one and a half months, as the quail grows quickly.
It is best to acquire live products in a place where she hatched and grown - on the farm, where they are seriously engaged in breeding quails. This will help to see many aspects, as well as compare the proposed dinds with the common bird mass.
Inspecting the bird, pay attention to:
- Feather cover - it should be uniform, slightly brilliant, without disastned and fears;
- Eyes - they should be clean, the blinking metering should always return to the place, semicircular or closed eyes - a sign of fatigue and illness;
- Breath - in it should not be brought to wheezing and whistling sounds;
- Motor activity - a healthy young twist is constantly in motion, but do not fuss and exhibits aggression.
Suppressed eyes - alarming sign
Important! Do not buy a coupling from the hands of strangers that you have not met before and no longer see! Due to your inexperience, you may slip patients, and perhaps even contagious birds. The smaller of evils will spend money.
The general recommendation for the feeding mode of all quail breed is the balance of protein in the diet. The smaller the individual, the more protein food it should get. The source is the waste production of soy (meal), bone and fish flour, as well as eggs. It is best to take their own, quail, in terms of the level of the necessary trace elements they exceed others. For this reason, the beginning of the nearest is not to contact too small chickens - in their nutrition much more trouble. It helps here the feed mixture "Start", which largely contains everything you need.
Packaging usually indicate the age from which it can be given
Those threatened chicks from the month need to be breeding no more than 3 times a day. Of the existing feed, the best option is "height" - it is specially designed for a rapid range of weights and eggsome adulthood of females in the already formed young. The protein content can be reduced - it should be not more than 16%.
Table 1. Feed consumption parameters depending on age quail.
|Age, months||Norm for egg breeds, g||Romance for meat breeds, g|
|0 - 1||4||4|
|9 and older||22.||24.|
From one and a half months of birds are considered adults. From now on, their main diet is grain, without them, the eggs are not normally formed. In order that the shell is not soft, the eggshell is added to the feeder food. In the summer, you can and need to roam the bird with green sprouts and shoots of neutral meadow herbs - this is an excellent source of natural vitamins.
Drinking twinks should at any time when just want. For this, they are arranged either nipple, or vacuum drinkers. Another cheap option is the custom of the bank, turned upside down and pulling the rubber harness to the plate. Water is poorly seeping, and the birds drink it as they arrive.
Quail - a small poultry size, distinguished by unpretentiousness and high performance indicators both in the Egg and in the meat direction. Large-scale breeding with incubation development requires the experience and knowledge of the subtleties, and even a small home dilution can be mastered even a beginner. Successes!
Quail content at home: step-by-step guide for novice quailing
Contents of quail At home - the case is very exciting and interesting. We multiply quail very quickly and grow rapidly. In addition, this business has a lot of advantages. You will provide your sequence dietary quail eggs and meat.
Note! The meat of quail is dietary, is considered one of the most useful. It has a rather low fat content, while there are almost all non-unmentable amino acids.
For this purpose, specialized breeds of Japanese quail of different directions were replaced - eggs and broiler (meat). The broiler direction quickly reaches the mass 200 - 250 g, while the mass of the birds of the eggs is rarely more than 150-180.
Quail meat can be stored for a very long time and it does not lose useful properties after freezing. It is recommended for many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, hearts, etc.
It is interesting! In the time of pharaohs in Egypt, therapeutic properties were attributed to the meat of quail. In Japan, and currently use raw quail eggs in a mixture with orange juice for the treatment of asthma.
Quail eggs have a whole clusse of beneficial substances. Quail eggs contain a huge amount of potassium, iron, phosphorus, cobalt, copper and vitamins of group V. They can even be consumed in a fresh form, as they are not carriers of Salmonelose.
In five quail eggs, by weight equal to one chicken, it contains 5 times more potassium, 4.5 times - iron, 2.5 times - vitamins B1 and B2. In addition, quails in the egg more protein than other brood birds. For example, the chickens in the egg contain 55.8% protein, quailing - 60%. The majority of brood birds of the shell eggs are more than 10% of the mass of the entire egg, the quail - only 7.2%.
The shell of quail eggs pigmented, very fragile, but has a durable and elastic suggest film. Coloring shells of quail eggs is very painted, resembling sea pebbles and varies from very dark to pure white.
Note! Quail eggs are a concentrated biological kit of the necessary human substances, and there are practically no cholesterol. In the literature there are information that in the old days of eggs and the meat of quail were used in Chinese folk medicine. This was one of the reasons for domestication and quail selection in Japan.
The egg is a valuable food product that can be recommended in the diet of children and adults under a number of diseases. They not only do not cause allergic phenomena even in those people who are contraindicated chicken eggs, but on the contrary suppress it. Special protein contained in quail eggs is treated (Ovomukoid). And the eggs of quail are used to rub into the skin of the face and head.
They contain many essential amino acids, among which are tyrosine, which helps when exchanging substances and contributes to the formation of pigment and, therefore, healthy skin color. There are still many other facts of therapeutic effects on the organism of regular use of quail eggs.
On a note! To obtain the necessary set of trace elements, an adult is recommended to drink 4-6 quail eggs daily, and the child is 2 - 3. Inconsciousness to the conditions of content, stern, the meek temper of these birds, pleasant tapes of males and almost daily masonry of a small cracked eggs make its interesting content for lovers.
Is it profitable to breed quails at home
Often lovers of an interesting and entertaining kind of activity with heads are rushed into the breeding of quail, but this business has many pitfalls. Cover for content and efficient productivity require special conditions from person. That is why such a business does not always bring the desired profit. That is why it is necessary to weigh all the "for" and "against" breeding such a livestock.
Pluses of breeding quail
The benefit of the choice of quail business is counting on any farmer. This benefit is as follows:
- requires small financial investments at the start; Differs high payback; brings first earnings after 2-3 months;
- does not require lease of huge areas;
- makes it possible to get 3 different products (meat, eggs and a living bird);
- When the content of a small herd does not need to increase staff.
Note! The quail farm is beneficial only only when favorable conditions are created for the bird (including the right diet and hygiene).
Minuses breeding quail I do not look at the fact that the content of the quail farm suits many, such content has its own minuses:
- The farm will require a well-heard room and a special microclimate, especially during the poultry molting period;
- Cockups do not differ in good immunity, so often infected with all sorts of bird infections;
- On the quail farm is always noisy, since this bird is one of the most singers in the family; Young females carry no more than 8-9 months, then their productivity decreases sharply;
- Quail products are not particularly popular, so the search for sales markets can take a long time.
Basics of successful cultivation of quails
Before starting to deal with the content of quails, it is necessary to determine what, and for what purpose they need you. Let's look at some interesting options.
- If you wish to fully provide yourself, as well as your seven valuable quail eggs and dietary meat, then for this you will have enough 10-30 goals. Such a number of birds will not deliver a lot of trouble. It is enough to place them in any corner of an apartment or a private house, in a cell with dimensions of 45 × 60 centimeters.
- In order for you to enter the product sales market and get some profit, experienced farmers recommend starting with 500 birds. With all this, such a fact should be taken into account that thanks to the rapidness and rapid growth of birds, the livestock will increase to 5,000 dinds in 1 year. And for such scales, a warm room is already required 12-20 square meters. It should also be taken into account that a year later, the quail decreased egg production, so it is necessary to take care of the update of the tribe. To do this, you will need an incubator, as well as an additional area for it. It is also necessary to take care of sales.
- If you bought 1000 and more birds. Such a scale can be called industrial production. To do this, you will need a special content. The area of the economic is the minimum of 20-30 square meters. In addition to the sales problem, there are several more. In particular: registration of entrepreneurship, hiring several employees for bird care, new cell designs. With this scale of production, it is also advisable to trade with young.
Note! Quail - very thermal-loving birds. The room temperature where the bird should not fall below 16 degrees, otherwise the egg production is very much, and at a temperature of 0-5 degrees can die at all. If you wish to contain birds in the pen, the height of the walls should be higher than one and a half meters so that they cannot fly over the territory.
Quail content at home
For breeding quails at home you will need an incubator. The fact is that homemade quails do not have instinct of reaching. Incubator can be bought or make it yourself. The incubator is suitable for a small size, as quail eggs are rather small.
Note! If you plan to breed quails for a small family, then a small incubator is at 50-100 eggs. For incubation, you should choose the freshest eggs. After 17 days, the first reversal appear. Incubation is carried out at a temperature of 38-38.5 degrees and with air humidity 65-75%.
After the output, small quail is placed in a warm box with high walls. Top covers a grid. The temperature in the box should be at least 36-38 degrees until the age of 14 days. It is very heat-loving. Also, within 14 days, it is necessary to organize additional lighting.
During the first 3 days, quiet with boiled eggs are quiet, which are pre-shaped. Then, in the diet of feeding, you can add cottage cheese and special feed for small quail.
Starting from the second week of life, chicks are fed by a special purchased feed.
Pour the most convenient from special vacuum drinking, just warm and boiled water. In the first days of life, a little manganese is added to the water.
Already by 40-50 the day of life, it becomes adult birds, become warm and begin to carry eggs. From this point on, birds already contain as adults.
Quail contains in specialized cells in a dry, warm and well ventilated room without drafts. The floor should be with a solid coating, the walls are smooth so that they can be easily cleaned and disinfect.
For the cultivation of a small amount quail at home can be used cells for patriped birds or terrariums.
Note! For growing 80-100, cells can be more quailing from the utility materials.
The floor in the cell must be from a grid with a galvanized coating and cell sizes of 10 × 10 mm. In the first 5-7 days, the floor is covered with a cloth, which change every three days. During this period, you can also use removable mesh-inserts from the grid with 5 × 5 mm cells. The width of the cell must be 1.0-1,5m, the depth is 45-50 cm. 90-100 quail in each cell is quailing. The cage is divided into two halves. In the cell, IR lamp 150-175 W with a reflector for heating is connected via a regulator (dimmer), a lamp for lighting 25 W.
For each cell, the cells, the doors, systems of nipple waterion, put on one bunker feeder. On the first 5-7 days there will be vacuum drinkers, because Daily quail can not use the nipple system. The lower part of 100-150 mm high is made stationary and protects quail from jumping and dropping when the feed, water, the replacement of tissue or grid is distributed.
Light, Temperature and humidity modes
The room temperature before planting quail is brought to 35-36 оWith in the zone of their location at the expense of IR lamp and special household calorificates, furnace heating or any other heating system.
Such a temperature is supported during the first week, then decreases to 30-32 оIn second week, 25-27 оC - Third and 20-22 оC - in the fourth and subsequent weeks. Indoor temperature is maintained by 3-5 оWith below. The decrease in temperature is produced gradually, because It is very sensitive to its sharp drops.
The main criterion for maintaining the optimal temperature is the state of the bird itself:
- If they are climbed, sediments, poorly consume food - it means low temperature;
- If the wings bloom, open the beak, often breathe - it means it is hot and temperatures should be reduced.
Lighting and ventilation
The duration of the lighting is quailing in the first week - 24 hours, then decreases by 3 hours a week and the 45-day age is brought to 17 hours / day with the lighting intensity in the area of placement of feeders and drinking on the first day 20-25 LCs followed by a decrease to 8 -5 LK to 3-week age.
The air exchange indoors is provided by fans, calorifers, windows, fraamug, pedetches and special mines. Attention should be paid to the inadmissibility of drafts. Air humidity must be within 60-70%.
The main thing is that in the room where the quail is grown, there was no dust and the smell of hydrogen sulfide.
Feeding technology quail
When feeding, feeding feeders and drinkers are uniform so that all chicks have free access to feed and water. In the first days, the feeders and drinking rooms should be well lit and fill it at the same time. In the first 1-2 days, the feed is poured into tray feeders with low sideboards or clean fabric. Later is used both tray and small groove feeders with sides up to 20-30 mm high.
From above, the feeder is covered with a rare mesh or twigs, which protects food from placer and contamination with a bedding. In the cell put at least two feeders. The groove feeders make from galvanized iron: they should be easily cleaned and well sustain disinfection. Feeding front for quail over weekly age 10-12 mm / goal. The first 5-7 days will sing quail from vacuum drinkers or plastic pallets, on the bottom of which they put a crossliner with a height of 5 mm. Fertile front - 3-5 mm / goal. After 7 days, it is possible to translate quiet for nipple waters.
Feeding and feed quality
Quilted fed to the injection of high quality feeds in the form of crumbs or torture fine grinding. For feeding, it is prevented primarily with light-resistant feed: corn and wheat to heat, soy and sunflower meal, fish flour, feed yeast. In the first days of life use: fresh cottage cheese, steeply cooked eggs. At the older age, it is a finely chopped soft greenery in a mixture with a feeder or in separate feeders. The main thing is all feed should be fresh and benign. The feeding of the blind, stale, moldy, whipping and vocal feed causes gastrointestinal diseases and mass death of chicks. Often this is a consequence of storage of feed with high humidity, using dirty dishes in the preparation of dairy products and watering of feed in feeders when feeding with wet mixes.
Feeding quail is divided into 3 periods:
- Present. From 1 to 6 days, when they quit with a special shredded sample or starting feed and additionally fed boiled eggs (2-3 g / goals), rubbed through the grid with a cross section of 2 × 2 mm, from the third day - fresh cottage cheese (2 g / goal), soft greens; In winter - grated carrots (2g / goal). The flour mixture is carefully disappeared with boiled eggs and cottage cheese. Feed quietly during this period 5-6 times a day, preventing damping of feed in the feeders. Before each feeding, the remaining feed is cleaned
- Starting (feeding). From 7 to 21 days, when a special start-up feeding feed is used in the diet.
- Young (Nonaching, Rooster). During this period, it is introduced into the diet of feed for non-shells. In a complex with a simple homemade feed, consisting of 5 parts of wheat, 3 parts of corn, 1 part of the sunflower seeds and 1 part of pea, quail is used daily by this feed. Collective ratio with homemade 4: 1.
The regulatory nutrition of feed for quails is given in the table:
Feed feeder for quail
Age quail, weeks
Contents in 100 g dry mixture,%
|Protein||Exchange energy, kcal.||Cellulose||Calcium||Phosphorus||Sodium|
|Meat young man|
It is best to feed quiet with a complete feed-made feed for the first age turret or broiler chickens in the form of shallow crumbs or scattering. In the latter case, the Combikrm is being finalized by adding animal feed: fish, meat and busty flour or cottage cheese. If such a feed is not possible to purchase, then the feed is made on the spot on the recipes shown in the table.
Exemplary feedback recipes for quail (in%)
Path ages, weeks
|Repair young||Meat young man|
|1-4||5-6 (7) *||1-3.||4-6 (7) *|
|Barley to heat (without films)|
|Oatmeal (without films)|
|Vegetable oil, feed fat|
Note: * For pharaohs
After 4-5 weeks of age, oatmeal is introduced into the diet, millet, herbal flour. When drawing up rations, it is necessary to control the content and balance of amino acids, the ratio of protein and metabolic energy. The feed is enriched with microelements and vitamins by adding a special vitamin and mineral premix, and with a lack of lysine and methionine - additives of their synthetic preparations. Small gravel with particle sizes of 1-2 mm are added to individual feeders.
Rules for procurement of quails for maintenance at home
If there is no free time for the cultivation of birds from the egg, you can buy a young twist.
Note! For cultivation, it is necessary to acquire a healthy young one from the beneficiaries of infectious diseases of the economy. In young birds, the plumage is always smooth and soft, it evenly covers the whole body. Any other features of feather cover talk about a patient or an old bird.
The choice of birds acquired is an important event, which largely depends on the continued success of the entire enterprise for quail breeding. Currently, quails are sold to all who are not laziness: both in the markets, and on advertisements on the Internet, and in private from the neighbor to the neighbor. Only lazy now does not breed a quieter. And from this it follows not a very pleasant conclusion that specialists in this issue per capita is less and less. And it means there is very easy to run into the unfair seller.
Therefore, I remember the basic rule - not to believe anyone - neither beginner nor experienced feeders. "Wasp" is not a very good bird, and even a newcomer - the Holy Case! Anyway, they will "be bent"! So "steam"?! Of course, it is better to buy a feedback from such a seller, which can then be easily found if problems with the bird will begin, or there will be additional questions on its content. However, in the event of problems with overtaking, all your reproaches will be said to you that this is your error in the content - in fairness! And you will be objected to you: this is true - you have no experience! Therefore, we will try to protect themselves as much as possible when choosing, buying and transporting a quieter to the "place of residence".
When buying should be carefully examined
Even the shortest inspection of the bird will give you a lot of information. Consider how quail behaves. If she sits, having laughed, does not respond to what is happening around it, lame, if there are obvious signs of bleeding and scratches - do not buy such a bird.
Pay attention to the eyes, beak, clock. The eyes of the twirl should be clear, without mucus and sucking crusts. Beak without deformations and chips. On Cloake no dried blood or dried feces. Pay special attention to the legs of the backup: there are no cones on the bends of the legs, all the fingers in place, the fingers without curvature, the joints on the legs without thickening. The age of twisting also gives the skin on the legs: the scales on the skin in old birds are rigid, rough. In young birds, the skin on the legs smooth.
On a note! You should not take a cripper with a brittle or dim pen - almost always this indicator or old age birds, or inappropriate care.
Sometimes when buying in females, the belly and frontal bones are checked. I, however, it seems that the novice feeder will not be able to determine the quality of the bird on these signs. Males determine easier: either by a specific scream, in which they are pulled out "in the string" or by the presence of a dietary gland or in color. When buying a daily or weekly young man, do not forget that it is always almost a lottery. You can lose!
Of course, it will not be superfluous, at least briefly familiarize yourself with the literature on the breed that he is going to buy! So that it did not work out as in the joke: "Who has sold a hamster here in the spring?". Now about the transport boxes in which you are going to your homeland. The easiest option is a fairly spacious cardboard box with holes done in it for air flow. But there are special plastic boxes for transporting birds. If you buy the livestock of the feedback constantly, it makes sense to buy, at least one of these boxes for transportation:
The bottom of the boxes stood with soft clean cloth or paper. When transporting it is important to prevent overcooling quiet.
Before planting, it is quailing to grow in cells or in the heating zone, the fabric is spilled in several layers to the floor, to which feeders and drinkers are set. As the fabric is polluted.
Content and feeding of adult quail
Quail males reach sexual maturity at a 35-40-day age, females - a 40-day. 50% egg layout intensity is achieved in a 50-day, 70-75% - in 60-65 days. Intensive egg production lasts 36-40 weeks. Under 6-7 weeks, quails are separated by the floor and the parent flock is completed. The males have a reddish-brown chest with black specks, in females - light with black clips. The live weight of females when completing the herd - 3300 g, males - 280 g. References are rejected on fattening.
Contain quails of the parental herd in group cells - 30 goals, incl. 23-24 females and 7-6 males (sexual ratio 1: 3-4).
The insulated content of males from females and the female shocking to males for mating 1-2 days by 15-20 minutes is also used.
For adults, specialized Japanese cells or, so-called batteries are used. You can make cells in your farm from fragments of used cells, output trays and shallow mesh. The thickness of the rods on the polishes should be 1.8-2.0 mm, the distance between them is 12 mm. At the same time, the polic in the cell must be tilt 7 оIn the direction of the fodder passage and end from the front side of the egg collector. Floor area in the cell must be 0.3-0.5 sq.m. The height of the cell in the front is 17-20 cm, in the rear -13-15 cm. Specific landing density for females - 150 cm 2/ goal, for males 100-120 cm 2/Goal.
Adult quail contains at 17-18 hours light day and lighting intensity 20 LCs (4 W / m 2Paul). Large lighting, as well as the rearrangement of birds in a cage, is not recommended, because Quail in such cases behave restlessly, fighting and smelled each other. The temperature in the content of the parental herd should be 20-22 оC, relative air humidity - 60-65%.
Feeders are arranged on one side of the cell at an altitude of 50-66 mm, the drinkers - on the other. Front of feeding 15-20 mm / goal, watering 1 nipple drinker for 10 heads.
Feed adult quails 2 times a day as sofa, as the young in 6-7 weeks. In this case, reduce the cottage of juicy and grain feed, increase the protein content to 21%, and metabolic energy - 290 kcal / 100 g of the mixture.
Fullings of the folded young and adult quail after the end of the eggs are carried out for 2-4 weeks (separate males and females) in the same cells, which contains quails of the parent herd, but the lighting intensity is reduced to 10-12 LCs, the light day - up to 10 hours at a temperature of 20-24%. At the same time try to inside the cell it is dark. Feed quails on fattening the same foods that the meat is young in 6-7 weeks with a protein level of 21%, the content of 310 kcal / 100 g of the mixture.
Fattening domestic quails before Zam
Quail at home, from an economic point of view should live for about two years, after which it is clogged. Small quail at the age of 20-25 days must be divided by the floor. All males and unnecessary females begin to intensively refill. During the fattening of females and males, it is planted in different cells, in each of which 30-45 quails plant. It should be noted that the cell area for each bird should be 8.5-10 centimeters.
In the room it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 21-25 degrees. The illumination should be very insignificant, because of this, the males will fight less, which means there will be less calories, with measured feed intake.
It is necessary to feed 3-5 times a day, and in the morning and at night, feed should be more calorie.
Note! The duration of the fattening of males ends with the terms of the growth of quails - 50-65 day. And females with the end of the intensive period of the egg laying - 12-13 months. Before the tip of the bird does not give feed within 6 hours, but the widow give water.
The diet of meat quails is often based on grain, wet huts with boiled peas, as well as specialized feeds with the addition of 5% feed fat. The inclusion of boiled eggs and fresh cottage cheese has proven excellent in the diet. Such food birds give plenty, but at least 40 g / part per day. The main indicator of high-quality poultrying of the bird is a small fatty layer on the chest, which is clearly told with palpation. For a set of mass, you should create an optimal light mode in the poultry house.
The most actively this figure in the bird is observed with a soft abdomen. Light day for meat quails also requires changes to 8-10 hours per day.
Proceeds are produced on a specially equipped place. The head is cut off by a small hatch, or a large sharp knife. After the glasses of blood, the legs of the shin and wings on the first joint are cut off with large scissors, the carcass take the neck from Himself, the abdomen up. The thumbs of both hands are on the trouser, and the remaining fingers below hold the back. The sharp movement of large fingers in different directions, the skin on the trouser burst, and then removed as stockings. Then there is a carcass of the carcass (even with a finger). With some skill, the entire facility and destruction procedure takes no more than 15-20 seconds.
Outpacked quails for the sale of eggs
Nuts on eggs are often fed up with all sorts of honeycomb, based on grain. The increased content of raw proteins in the feed is a domicile requirement, since without this their egg production is sharply reduced. Non-lethals should be included in the feed chopped egg shell, crushed chalk or marine seashells (up to 10% of the total feed, and not more than 2 times a week). Avoid moving the bird (the amount of feed per day for egg quails should not exceed 20-30 g / part).
Prevention of quail disease
Note! Practice shows that the disease is easier and cheaper to warn than after the bird is treated.
Quail grown and contains isolated from other bird species; Young and adult quail - in separate rooms. When replacing the herd of adult quails, the sanitary gap should be 15 days, between the parties of the young - 10 days.
The focus is on the preparation and purity of premises, which contains a bird, cleaning equipment, which is used in the cultivation and content of quail.
On a note! To prevent the disease, the infectious diseases are quailing in the first 3-5 days water with baytril or an enkoxyluit at the rate of 1 ml / l of water. To increase the body's resistance to infections and stimulation of growth from 7 to 30 days, nutril SE (at the rate of 1.5 g / 0.5 teaspoon / 3 l of water) is supplied.
In the process of growing, it is necessary to monitor the state of the bird: a healthy bird is very mobile, it has a good appetite and a smooth plumage. Sacred patients are sluggish, low-lifting, refuse feed and clogged into cell angles. Such a bird has a disheveled plumage, the woven eyes and the wings are omitted.
When patients with chicks, it is necessary to check the nutritionality of the diet and the quality of feed, improve the conditions of detention, and with an increase in bird waste, contact the veterinary worker to form a diagnosis and treatment in the event of a disease of quail infectious or other diseases.
Breed of home quail
It is very important before the start of breeding correctly choose the breed. There is quite a large number of breeds of home quail. According to different sources, they are from 44 to 50 varieties. Choosing the breed, you need to proceed from the goals for which you need these birds. If you want to receive the maximum number of eggs from quails, then the focus when choosing should be done on egg brands. If you are important to aesthetic beauty, then you should choose from a catalog of decorative rocks.
Note! In the case of breed selection, focus should be focused on rocks that are less whimsally in feeding and content.
The following breeds of quail are most common in Russia:
According to poultry reviews, the Quail Texas white and Japanese breed has proven themselves.
The breed of quail Pharaoh
This is mainly a meat breed. These birds are characterized by more intensive growth, as well as a large mass (up to 300 grams). Egg stage is 150-250 eggs per year. The painting of the pen has wild-type birds, as well as white. It looks very similar to the quail of the Japanese breed. The young of this bird grows very quickly, which is very profitable from an economic point of view.
This breed is derived in the United States of America and was used to reproduce broiler birds.
Japanese breed quail
This breed is almost the Inezenosskoye. Per year one twist is able to postpone up to 350 eggs. Very rapidly - they begin laying eggs aged 30-40 days.
This breed has a very good immunity. This breed is not too demanding on the conditions of content and unpretentious. By the way, this breed is a fundamental in the selection of other breeds.
Breed Texas white quail
Texas This breed is called because it was derived in the state of Texas USA. This is a breed obtained by crossing English and Japanese. Texas quail are very beneficial for home breeding. Given their minimum requirements for care and content, even beginner farmers will art.
Externally, birds are very attractive, unlike their relatives of the Pharaoh breed. The females are larger than males and reach up to 400 grams of live weight, which is a record weight for quail. It is very simple to contain the Texas quails, they do not require a certain humidity, and tolerate the temperature shift well. The only condition is special nutrition, since for intensive weight gain, a balanced feed is needed in large quantities.
Quail content: Calculation of income and profitability
The volume of investments that will be required for a quail farm depend on the starting line. The most often professional farmers advise to start from 400-500 birds, which in just a year can increase to herd of 5 thousand heads.
In order for the farm to bring profits as quickly as possible, it should be started at least with 1000 chickens.
For the purchase of young people will need about $ 1,000. For this offspring, you will need 12 special cell batteries that will take about 15 square meters. m Square. This cost of expenses will require a poultry around $ 2,200. The following group of expenses is specialized equipment.
For a small farm of 1000 birds, you need to get infrared lamps and an incubator in which the offspring will develop. Often this will require a $ 230-250 cash farmer. You can save on Brueder (see the section "Brueder").
For effective bird feeding, it will take about 20-40 g of feed on the head per day. To do this, you need to acquire special age-related feeds. Per month This cost of expenses will be about $ 200.
It is also necessary to take into account the costs of lighting and heating, which will be about $ 90-100 per month and veterinary services (about $ 50 will be required per month).
To calculate possible profits, you need to calculate the amount of products that the farm can be frozen. The average weight of one carcass, which for the entire productive period is able to give about 200-300 eggs per day, is about 250 g.
The price of such products is closely dependent on the region, therefore, to determine the average digits from the market price adopted per unit, about 35-50% should be taken away. Such an amount is withdrawn the wholesale buyer for further resale of meat and eggs.
Under the optimal conditions, income from the sale of meat-egg products is $ 1100 per month, net profit - $ 850 per month (made of heating fee, feed, for example). Thus, the productive farm pays for itself in 5-6 months.
However, these calculations do not include the work fee of the zootechnology. On average, such a specialist salary fluctuates within $ 300 per month. With a sharp increase in the livestock, you may need the help of a handyman in false and cleaning the bird.
And this will additionally pull at least 100-150 US per month of additional costs, which will increase the return on the enterprise to 9 months, and in some cases more.
Useful tips for beginners of quailing
To simplify the works of novice farmers, when diluming, it follows:
- secure the bird from stress and noise, as they sharply reduce their productivity;
- Avoid newspapers like fillers for cells. They cause sliding paws and further trauma of birds;
- pre-distribute the herd on meat and eggs, it will increase the productivity of all production;
- strictly observe the diet (depending on the productive direction);
- disembark excessively aggressive and noisy individuals in a separate place;
- scores no longer than 12 months after birth, since their further content becomes inappropriate;
- observe the hygiene of the bird content;
- Avoid drafts in the poultry house, which is fraught with a long cold;
- cells have vertical cascades, 6 pieces (this helps more rationally use the poultry area);
- Not later than 2-3 weeks before slaughter, stop feeding quail with any drugs, since their remnants would not have time to get out of meat.
Quail farm today is considered one of the most profitable enterprise in agriculture. In just 6 months, such a business is capable not only to paint yourself, but also give first noticeable profits.
To do this, not only to establish the functioning of production, but also take care of the channels for the sale of quail products, otherwise the dyeing is leading to losses.
Video: Quail content for beginners
Many poultry farms are successfully bolds even in urban apartments. Adapting to their lives of bird cells, you will consistently get the crop of delicious eggs, while creating a small farm, you will provide yourself with dietary meat. How to do this, read further.
Why exactly quails?
Quail are the most small birds from the chicken chicken and the Pheasan family. The weight of such a bird is about 150 g, and the length of the Taurus is not more than 20 cm. They are increasingly bred at home and in the country due to three moments:
- This is an excellent alternative to classic poultry farming, because it is not required to build a big chicken coop, walking the bird and think about to feed it. So, for the content of 50 quailing requires several square meters, if you competently approach the organization of space.
- Despite its modest sizes, quail - excellent nurses. Separate species can give up to 300 eggs per year. On average, 50 birds from 50 birds per day can be obtained about 45-48 eggs, which is equivalent to 8 chicken, but they are more useful to their analogues, since several times more than the vitamins of the B, copper, potassium, iron, phosphorus and cobalt are several times. It is noteworthy that they can be used in raw form, as they are not carriers of salmonellosis.
- The poultry meat is dietary, as well as richly vitamins group B, iron, copper, potassium and useful amino acids. It is especially recommended for people who have problems with gastrointestinal tract, heart disease and vessels, as well as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, asthma or anemia.
Quail meat can be stored for a long time, since it retains its beneficial properties even after freezing.
How to choose a productive breed?
Depending on the purpose of growing, quail rocks are divided into egg stands and meat. With the characteristics of popular breeds can be found in the table:
|Name||Group||Egg stage, pieces / year||Eggs mass, g||Live mass, g||Fertility,%|
|Pharaoh||Meat||up to 220.||12-16||200.||up to 300.||80-90.|
|White English||Egg||About 280.||10-11||160.||190.||75.|
|NGO population "Complex"||egg-meat||260.||11-12.||150-170.||180-200.||70-80|
The following breeds are the most popular:
- Japanese . Egg mason of females begin already at the age of 1.5-2 months. Per year can carry up to 300 eggs. For habitats are undeclusive, sustainable diseases. Homemade quail have color similar to birds living in wildlife.
- British (English) White and Black . Less egg stands than Japanese (280 eggs per year), but slightly larger. Received from japanese quail mutations. They have a black plumage with a brown tint. Black quail have a higher mass compared to white view.
- Manyzhurian golden . Egg production up to 250 eggs per year. Have a very beautiful face of feathers - brown in half with wheat, which gives a bird a pleasant golden shade.
- Pharaoh . Enjoying sustainable demand from farmers. With its colors resembles Japanese quails. Les begin at the age of 40-50 days, but eggs give a relatively small - about 200 pieces per year. Such quails are actively used to breed broilers.
Japanese breed quail
British white quail
English black quail
Manchurian golden quail
For home dilution, Japanese, Estonian, marble and british white / black breeds are often selected, as well as Pharaoh.
Arrangement of the room and cells
For successful cultivation of quails, the room should be equipped with ventilation, lighting, heating. You should also prepare convenient cells, feeders and drinkers. Each detail needs to pay due attention.
The room should be light for 17-18 hours. Incandescent lamps should be included in 6-7 in the morning and turn off at 11 pm. With round-the-clock lighting, the females begin to take more often, but this leads to their rapid "wear". Bright lighting is not recommended, as it can provoke restless behavior and aggression among birds. Quail can start scattering and extinguishing eggs.
To illuminate the room with an area of 16 square meters. m enough single lamp in 40 watts. In the summer, with sunny light days, there is enough natural lighting.
If in the room where birds are contained, there are no windows, except for lighting incandescent lamps, quails need to be illuminated with ultraviolet lamps. They create imitation of sunlight and prevent rickets in birds.
Humidity and temperature
The content of moisture indoors is allowed not more than 50%. The optimal value is 60-70%. With excessive dryness, quail rarely rushed, and their plumage becomes brittle. You can correct the situation if you put a bucket or a cup with water near the cell. In raw rooms, on the contrary, birds can catch up and die.
The room temperature should be from 18 to 24 degrees. It should take into account that if it drops to 5 degrees, then the birds will be cleaned. It is important to ensure that in the winter period the temperature in the room is not below 18 degrees, otherwise the egg production of birds can suffer. It is important to prevent temperature drops, as it will also affect the performance of birds.
If birds are grown in the apartment conditions, it is necessary to establish good ventilation, since the smell of litter will be delayed in neighboring apartments, and it threatens very unpleasant disassembly with neighbors. In this regard, it is easier to breed quails in the country or in a country house.
For the apartment content of quail enough ordinary bird cells. They should be organized according to such rules:
- perform the frame of the cells from the galvanized grid, but in extreme cases the metal can be used;
- To withstand between the rods such a size so that the bird can sleep his head, otherwise it will not be able to reach the feeders when feeding;
- The height of the cell is at least 20 cm, otherwise the quail can smash their heads when they bounce;
- Provide in the cell place for two trays: one - for eggs, and the second - for litter, otherwise the eggs will be dirty, and an infection may appear.
At the same time, the following nuances should be taken into account:
- keep cells in a quiet place, but not on the windowsill, highly illuminated by the sun;
- In the 30x30 cell and 25 cm height, you can keep 3 females and 1 male;
- If it is planned to place cells on the loggia, it is necessary to take care of its tightness and insulation, since drafts and temperature fluctuations can lead to diseases and death birds;
- On the bottom of the cell you need to put paper, but you can pour into chips or sand, but they should be changed daily;
- Cells wash at least 2-3 months.
You can arrange racks from cells along the walls in a barn or other utility room. You can make them alone from the utility funds.
Feeders and drinkers
From the roofing iron you can make bunker feeders, but they should be deep and high - at least 10 cm in height. For water, it is best to use conventional cups or clean cans. They can be installed beyond the cell so that birds during drinking could not overturn them.
Mating and feeding parental herds
Having organized suitable conditions for the content of quails, you can go directly to pairing and pay special attention to feeding.
For breeding work it is necessary to select females at the age of 3-8 months, and males - 3-6 months. They are not suitable for pairing the quail of different breeds and nearby, as well as birds from the same manufacturer.
If you limit the number of females' mating, then the derivation of chicks will increase. On one male should have no more than 4 females. Often the male avoids mating with high-grade nurses, preferring to them low-grade. In such cases, the worst specimens are simply selected and cleaned.
During the pairing period, the quail must be obtained by a large number of proteins and vitamins. You can purchase various vitamin supplements for these purposes. Well suited for feed feed (better wheat, not rye).
The parental herd must be kept separately from the meat breeds of birds. Over time, the egg production in the female can start falling and need to replace the males. It does not always go quietly, since the new female manufacturer is usually taken in the "bayonets". They can drive them around the cage, pull the feathers and do not let themselves. Egg staged during the period of addiction is reduced by about a week, but then successfully restored.
As for feed, the older quail feeds are feeding the finished mixture of cereals, like chicken. At the same time, for the growth and health of birds, it is worth producing such products.
- bone or fish flour (2-3 times a week);
- chalk or lime;
- Small pebbles and eggs from eggs.
To diversify meals, you can give:
- boiled potatoes;
- chopped greens;
- Fresh vegetables, but finely crushed;
- sunflower seeds;
- Grain waste.
It is worth feeding at the same time 2-3 times a day. The optimal portion size is 30 g per bird.
In order for the cell to remain clean, and the feed left less, the feeder is worth putting outside the cell, but at such a distance so that the quail can reach their meal.
As females are donating, the ability to surfacing eggs, therefore, an artificial incubation can be used to obtain young people. In this case, the derivability of chicks is 60-70%.
Incubator can be made independently, but many prefer to buy a finished device. The most economical option is a foam incubator. It does not differ in strength, but has a pleasant price and is suitable for home use. There are also incubators with the option of automatic coup of eggs, but they are large and more often used in industrial production.
The incubator must maintain the desired temperature and air humidity, and it should be ventilation.
For incubation, you should take the eggs of medium size and mass, the correct oval shape. The shell must be the usual color, without chipping and damage. The incubation itself is carried out in this order:
- Eggs do not wash, but pollution should be cleaned with the small emery paper.
- The incubator warmly warm up, and then lay the eggs simultaneously or for several receptions. It should take into account that the prepared eggs are placed in a heated incubator no earlier than a day after the demolition. Until that time, they need to be stored in a cool place up to 6 days.
- Stop eggs into an incubator on a side or sharp end. Eggs lying on the side should be turned over after 2 hours for uniform warming up.
The incubation duration depends on the selected quail breed:
- Japanese and ordinary - 17 days;
- Chinese - 16;
- California - 22;
- Virgin - 23.
In order not to confuse the incubation time, the account should be kept.
As soon as it is quail appear, they immediately begin to actively move. You should quickly pull them out of the incubator, carefully examine and sort.
Content and cultivation of young
Growing young quail comes down to healthy nutrition and creating favorable conditions for life activity. After birth, they need to be transferred to a warm room and sear in drawers from cardboard or plywood. The bottom should be displayed with paper. Boxes must be large enough to accommodate at least one hundred chicks.
The room where quail cells are located, should be washed, disinfected and warm up.
You will definitely need to give water from diluted to light-pink color by manganese. In the first hours after birth, the water literally will have to pour into the neck so that the chick can drink in the future independently.
The quail is able to eat from the very first days of life. It is best if their feed is ready-made feed for chicks and young people. If this is not, then you can feed the eggs, boiled screwed and finely fluttered. If these are quail eggs, then they can be given with chopped to the state of the powder of the shell. The egg mixture can be supplemented:
- clumsy fast;
- boiled fish (crushed together with bones);
- interpreted breadcrumbs;
- Fresh greens - nettle, sick, dandelion, plantain (greens need to grind and pour from above the food).
Food is uploading at least 6 times a day, previously removing unselected residues. A few days later, gradually remove the egg from the diet, and the quantity of the feed is increased.
As a dietary supplement for quailing, you can use food, which is designed for broiler chickens.
Healthy birds have bright clean plump, not insane eyes, strong and strong legs. To keep track of their right development, it is necessary to regularly do the inspection of birds. In addition, you need to adhere to the basic rules:
- The room where birds are contained must be clean, well heated and ventilated. In the poultry house, it is necessary to carry out disinfection in a timely manner, carefully processing cells and feeders.
- All feed should be of good quality and with a non-stable storage. When adding wild greens (assembled on the site), it is necessary to carefully monitor so that there are no traces of litter of wild birds.
- You can not allow the contact of the contact of quails with wild and poultry, as hazardous diseases are transmitted through the litter.
- It once a week to put a capacitance with wood ash in a cage so that the quail can be reappeared. This is a simple measure, but it reduces the likelihood of parasites.
If you do not withstand these recommendations, quail can be amazed by such diseases:
- Eggs' falling . Often provoked by the lack of vitamins. The veterinarian can write vitamins and trace elements to restore the metabolism.
- Link . In this case, the staple is required in this case.
It should also be noted that quail can be injured if they fall from a height of more than 0.5 m or come together. In addition, this may be provoked by embarrassing actions of a person. Bird's wound should be treated with green or iodine, and before full recovery it is worth keeping in a separate chamber.
With any mass diseases and injuries, be sure to contact the veterinary service. You can additionally read about the most common quail diseases here.
Preparation for a caution and slaughter
At one age, quail separated by the floor. Unconditional discarded females and unnecessary males are transmitted to fattening and prepare for slaughter. It is necessary to withstand such rules:
- Feed the birds 3-4 times a day with plenty of calorie food. The diet consists of a grain mixture in combination with feed fat. For adults, quails also need to use feed.
- Fucks withstand 1.5-2 months. Upon reaching this time, the poultry weight is usually 130-160.
- 12 hours before slaughter from the cell, remove water and feed, which is necessary for the liberation of the bird's intestines.
With slaughter, adhere to such a scheme:
- Cut the bird with scissors, a secateur or a small hatch.
- When all the blood comes down, start processing a carcass - cut off the paws and the lower part of the wings.
- Carushka dip in hot water, and then pinch her and rolling. It takes a few minutes.
Finished carcass to wrap in a plastic bag and freeze.
Video: Quailing errors
What errors are often allowed when growing quail, it is described in the following video:
The cultivation of quails is associated with great concern about these birds. If you are ready to put your strength, time and some amount of money in this profitable case - dare! Ensuring the diet useful dietary products in this case are guaranteed.
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Maxim Romanov5 Publications: 149.
Quail content at home
The content of quail in the household is becoming increasingly popular and attractive occupation for both beginners and experienced poultry farms. Two types of valuable products are obtained from quails - eggs and meat, and it is the most affordable eggs that are the most affordable and advantageous.
Growing this bird on meat can be associated with some difficulties. Create a large flock for a constant preparation of young meat directions is not easy, for every 3-4 female female sit down and contain these families separately, constantly collecting, incubating egg and growing small quail, which are demanding of the care and conditions of content.
Contain an egg herd is more profitable - the productivity of quail remains for several years, in the first year the egg production is up to 280-300 eggs and in the second or third years to 150-170 pieces. The eggs contain many beneficial substances - vitamins, minerals, indispensable amino acids, other biologically active and useful substances. Quail eggs are in demand in children's and sports nutrition, and also included in the dietary menu.
The obvious benefit of the content of quail proceeds from the price of egg products - quail eggs are more expensive than chicken, and it requires this little bird significantly less feed and place.
Another advantage is a long shelf life of eggs that can be stored up to 60 days in a cold place. This means that you can collect a large game at a time, and you should not worry about the fact that the commodity egg can quickly come into disrepair.
Another weighty plus is that the owners always have the opportunity to take advantage of the beneficial properties of quail eggs - an excellent preventive tool that helps restore the body after illness, avitaminosis, anemia, diseases of the lungs or gastrointestinal tract.
For the content of this bird, you can not build a separate room, quail sewn in the summer kitchen, a small barn or even within the apartment, isolating the room from drafts and observing the basic rules for care.
With cellular content, a small bird is quite a bit of space. Some practical poultry farms are managed to establish on their loggia or in a specially equipped storeroom battery made of several cells with quails, supplying the whole family and relatives with a useful natural product.
What you need to know novice quailing?
- Quails contain 2-3 years, the overall life of their lifetime is not more than 3-4 years.
- An adult bird weighs from 150 to 200 grams.
- The masonry begins between the ages of 6 and 7 weeks and each egg weighs from 7 to 15 grams.
- The best egg breeds carry up to 280-300 eggs per year. For excellent egg production, complete feeding and muffled lighting at least 16 hours per day are necessary.
- Quail put eggs in a bright day of day, more often in the morning.
- For incubation at home, eggs are selected by weight from 9 to 11 grams with a smooth and solid shell.
- The term incubation of eggs is about 17 days.
- Newborn trimming weighs about 6-7 grams.
- Quail at home does not cause their eggs.
- For successful dilution, contain one quail for every 3-4 female.
- Small peers are very sensitive and require attentive care throughout the first two weeks to become strong enough.
Care and cultivation of young quails
Milled in the incubator quail transplanted into a special heating cage, or drawers made from plywood or cardboard. The quail needs to be warm - this is the main requirement for their successful content, which means they will need an electric heater, an infrared lamp, or, with a small amount of chicks, a simple incandescent lamp by 40-60 W.
To equip the cage with your own hands for the content of young at home easy. This cell is suitable for 60 quail, age from day to three weeks.
The width of the cell is 150 cm, the depth is 60 cm, the height is up to 40 cm. The front wall is made removable from the grid with a cell 5x5 mm, the floor is mesh - from the grid with a cell 1x1 cm, the pallet to collect the litter is equipped under it. All other walls are from the available material - boards, plywood, chipboard, in such a box it is easier to maintain a stable temperature and felling quail will feel protected.
In one part of the cell placed the lamp - there young people will be able to warm up, the other wall has feeders and automatic drinker on the jar. It is undesirable that the lamp warmes water - the hot liquid is peeled to drink. In the first week, the floor is covered with newspapers.
Young at the age of the day, the temperature is necessary + 37 ° C, then heating gradually decrease. The temperature of the content of adult quail should be at least + 19-20 ° C. Air humidity - 60-70%.
The table below proposes indicators of temperature and duration of lighting.
Temperature and lighting indicators
The cage with the nephemes do not wear out, even in good weather. Quail - strong and stable bird, but in adulthood. The young people even a light wind or a minor decrease in temperature can lead to colds and death.
In the first two weeks, round the clock lighting is installed for quail, then gradually the light period is reduced. By age of the month, quails leave light at 12 o'clock per day. Then, for the productive herd contained on the egg, the light day increases, starting on the fifth week, bringing to the eighth week to 16 hours.
In the first days, the diet consists of a fodder mixture, which includes sifted cereals, more often, or feed with chopped eggs, all finely reversed. Some breeders give the kids special feed from the first day, and in this case the eggs do not feed.
Quilted at the age of the week feed at least six times a day, gradually reduce the number of feeders, bringing the mode to two-time nutrition. A month later, young people can give food for adults. It is impossible to sharply translate from one diet to another, the transition is made gradually. Read more about feeding quails in a separate article.
Content of adult individuals
The content of adult quail at home is possible by cellular and outdoor method. Cells are optimal and intensive cultivation are a more successful and practical option.
With outdoor content, heating is carried out using infrared lamps, the floor is covered with sawdust of sawdust or straw, arrange the automatic bunker feeders and drinkers.
In such conditions, quail will feel comfortable, however require more painstaking care. In a large flock, fights are possible when establishing hierarchical relations, in addition, such a landing of birds is irrational from the point of view of using the area.
Quail content with outdoor way
The typical cell for the content of adult individuals is made of a dense mesh and an inclined gender for the collection of eggs in a sloping chute. The most successful angle of inclination is 7 °, downstairs adapt the light pallet from the galvanized metal sheet.
Make the inclined floor is easy if you plan the floor to two corners, which will serve both the base of the walls and guides. The feeder is attached to the front wall, the side is drunk. The dimensions of such a cell at the rate of 20 heads - length 45 cm, depth 45 cm, height - 25 cm.
The side walls and ceiling can be made of a rigid lattice consisting only of vertical rods without transverse jumpers, or a large-scale dense grid. If the cell is single, the door is done from above, if the cell is assumed to perform a battery - doors for planting birds provide on the side.
With the content of a small herd, the cell can be built from the girlfriend - wood, tree-chipboard, leaving the lattice only the front panel and checking the floor with sawdust, as proposed in the video below.
Tips beginners backpage
The comfortable stay of the quail largely depends on the lighting. Non-leaving needs in a light day, the duration of which is at least 16 hours and not more than 17 hours. The bright light of quail is not needed - excessive lighting leads to the manifestations of aggression.
To avoid this, the lighting is muffled up to 30-35 LCs, and the cells are placed as far as possible from the natural source of light, in the room without windows, or closed windows with blinds.
The optimal temperature regime for adults is kept in the range from +18 to +22 ° C. Higher or low indicators significantly reduce egg production and promote diseases.
Density of quail landing - up to 80 heads per 1 square meter. m. Cell area, but no more than 25 heads in one cell. With outdoor content, up to 50 heads per 1 square meters. m., but it should be remembered that the egg production with this method is significantly lower.
The content of quails at home is an interesting and advantageous occupation, good price and stable demand for products, saving of space and feed - a guarantee of guaranteed payback and high profits.
Dear readers, write your feedback on the content of quails in various ways. Remember the possibility of sending a full story about the features of the content and breeding of poultry with the help of our contact form, and your article will be published in one of these sections your quail. If you are a breeder and implement a young or egg - you can put this information, while do not forget to specify the area of accommodation and contact details.
Quail - loved by many birds. Everyone heard about the benefits of quail eggs. Birds grow very quickly, carry many eggs, give delicious, healthy meat.
Care and dilution of quails at home - for beginners, the task is not simple. It is necessary to prepare the room, maintain proper conditions, acquire cells, calculate the diet. We will tell where to start and how to contain quails at the dacha on meat and eggs.
Quail - it is very tasty and interesting!
Dilute quail is very interesting. In addition to traditional birds contained at home, poultry-quail birds, pheasants, partridges are of particular interest. They are appreciated as decorative birds, and as a source of delicious meat and eggs.
The meat of quail deserves special attention. Unlike chicken-broiler meat, it has a dark, almost brown color, which gives him a similarity with a deer. The meat of quail differs from other bird species. Milk muscles and thigh muscles are practically low, so they seem dry. The important advantage of meat is the speed of cooking. You can bake a young bird in 30 minutes. Quail tasty and nutritious, suitable for dietary food.
Bird is beneficial to breed independently at home. Young quail very quickly gain weight, on the second day of life double it. Chicks eat food immediately after hatching. You can teach them, having cropped your fingers to the feeder and drinking. Birds have a rapid metabolism, so they have some features of breeding:
- Careful care is needed - maintaining the necessary temperature (38 degrees in the first days of life), especially when breeding and growing chicks and to increase the egg production of adults;
- Quail is sensitive to the length of the daylight;
- Bird does not like drafts;
- It is hard to carry oxygen deficiency and dusting indoors.
Below are the popular breeds of quail for breeding.
Breed of nonaxes:
- Japanese quail,
- English or british white.
- Manchurian golden,
- Estonian quail.
- Texas white.
Conditions of quail content
Japanese quails have special, high demands on growing conditions.
Important conditions of bird keeping - maintaining the necessary air temperature.
For adult bird
From the temperature of the content depends on the egg stage of the poultry:
- For dilution of quails, the ambient temperature is required 18-24 degrees Celsius;
- The optimum indoor temperature is 21 degrees;
- Temperature below 16 degrees causes braking egg production.
When diluted quail at home, egg production is not the most important feature, you can keep Japanese quail without heating all year round. In such conditions, quail rummage only in the summer and early autumn.
The state of health of quails, wintering in unheated enclosures, good. These birds are perfectly tolerated the low temperatures of the winter season, provided that they are provided:
- good wind protection;
- precipitation protection;
- High-energy, low fabric food.
An important factor in wintering quail in vivo is the adaptation of quails by gradual acclimatization of the body to low temperatures. For this reason, it is impossible to start quail, placing them in the unheated aviary when the weather is cold. Settlement should occur in summer. Then the decrease in the ambient temperature occurs gradually, allowing the birds to adapt to cold.
High temperatures for quail chickens are obvious.
Table. Required temperatures in the cultivation incubator quail
|Quail Chickens Lifetime||Temperature, degrees Celsius|
|in room||under the heat source (radiator)|
The thermoregulation of three-week quails, like adult birds, no additional sources of heat are needed. The room temperature should be about 21 degrees Celsius.
When growing chickens, like other types of poultry, it is impossible to be guided only by the recommended temperatures, it is important to observe the behavior of kids:
- If they are cumbersome and accumulate at the heat source - the temperature is too low;
- When the chicks are removed from the radiator - the temperature should be reduced;
- With the optimal temperature of the chicks are distributed in the incubator evenly - some rest, some eat feed.
Keeping chickens at home in special bars, where a special climate is supported.
Photo. Brother for growing chickens quail.
Japanese quails are not very sensitive to changes in air humidity.
The conditions for breeding quails are as follows:
- The recommended humidity is 65-75 percent;
- When the humidity is too low, the quail consume more water, thereby compensating for the increased losses from the body;
- High humidity (for example, 85%) is not recommended because conditions are created for the development of many pathogenic organisms.
An important environmental element for quail content is the need to avoid drafts. These birds are much larger than other bird species, susceptible to drafts. Quail, located in a room with drafts, first lose feathers, then their productivity decreases, as a result they fall and dying. Before breeding quail, you need to ensure the proper premises for growing without drafts.
The problem of poor plumage, or even the appearance of bald rods without caught in old quails, often has other reasons. "Baldness", especially females, is often explained by the following reasons:
- Perofiagia - mutual operating of feather birds;
- aging - the older quail, the worse the plumage;
- Genetic reasons - need to be selected by choosing birds with good reproduction plumage.
Quail love to be in well-lit rooms. The premises should be as brightly lit as during the summer day. Light, in addition to food, is the main factor of egg production.
For adult birds
In nature, the feeds begin to carry eggs in spring, during the elongation of the daylight. After June 24, when the light day reduction begins, the laying of wild bird eggs stops. The decision on the start of masonry is taken by the pituitary hormones, 2 factors affect their secretion:
- light intensity;
- The process of lengthening the light day.
This dependence is important in the dilution of egg-line quails. Mature nurses (about 7 weeks) should have a 14-hour day day. Stimulates the egg production effect "Spring", it is necessary to lengthen the day.
Important! It is better to increase the day day for half an hour every two weeks, bringing up to 17 hours of light per day.
An increase in the day of adult quail is projected as follows:
|Week of life quail||7||9||eleven||13||fifteen||17.||nineteen|
|Number of light per day, hours||fourteen||14.5||fifteen||15.5.||sixteen||16.5||17.|
Other needs to be covered in quail during the cultivation period. The chickens are very fast metabolism, so you can not delay their feed even for several hours. It is recommended that the chickens from the second week of life are continuously illuminated without night breaks, and from the third week of life, the lighting time should be reduced by 2 hours every week, so that at 7 week of life, young quails will be a 14-hour daylight.
Light mode for quail chicks is presented in the table:
|Week of life quail||1 and 2.||3||4||5||6||7|
|Number of light per day, hours||24.||22.||twenty||eighteen||sixteen||fourteen|
Quail premises must have effective ventilation so that the air exchange is carried out at least 7 times per hour. The ventilation system should work delicately, so as not to cause excessive air curvatures and drafts.
High oxygen concentration is an indispensable element that guarantees the health of quail. The needs of the body of birds in oxygen high enough. The respiratory system of quail is very sensitive to dusting air, which causes the appearance of diseases of the upper respiratory tract. That is why care for clean air in the rooms is very important when breeding this bird at home.
An adult bird has high nutritional needs, feeding requires a lot of zeal and the use of high-quality feed.
Lack of knowledge about nutritional needs is a frequent cause of failures in breeding and reproduction of quail.
Basic principles of quails
Metabolism from quail is much faster than other poultry:
- One-day chicken after 7 weeks becomes an adult bird (in chicken - after 22 weeks);
- The weight of quail eggs in relation to the mass of nurses 2 times more than the chicken.
Consequently, the use of feed for chickens during breeding chickens or nurses of quails is inappropriate, since the content of nutrients and biologically active connections in them are too low.
It is impractical to enrich chicken mixtures with meat or fish flour. Although this procedure increases the level of protein, but reduces the concentration of other nutrients - energy and vitamins. Birds should eat full-fledged mixtures for quail, because only they can cover nutritional needs and, therefore, guarantee good growth and high egg production.
Because of the small number of quail, there are few ready-made special combustible feed for quail. In this situation, you have to produce bird feed yourself. This fact should be considered as periodic, since in general the balanced feed mixtures should be made by specialized factories.
Obviously, in amateur breeding, all types of "homemade" diets for quail are acceptable. As a rule, they are much more labor-intensive, but daily preparation of food for pets is one of the most important elements of homemade cultivation and breeding quails at the cottage.
Features of feeding non-success
Quail eggs, although they look inconspicuous, very tasty. Quail among domestic birds have the highest nutritional requirements. Their unusually quick metabolism and high egg production require a special approach.
To contain a quail of non-sleeps at home, it is necessary to provide them with a varied balanced diet. For feed, various types of grain and other feed are used:
- Corn grains
- founds (dandelion, clover),
- swallowing wheat
Attention! Fish flour used in the diet as a raw material to increase the content of protein, strongly affects the smell of meat, makes it unpleasant!
The best solution is a feed. The feed mixture for quail meat direction should be richer food used to feed non-bumps.
1 kilogram of the mixture should contain 3050 kcal (12.7 MJ / kg), including:
- 22% of the total protein,
- 1.1% lysine,
- 0.48% methionine,
- 0.45% phosphorus,
- 0.9% calcium,
- 0.16% sodium,
- 0.15% chlorine.
It is forbidden to introduce coccidostatics - drugs antiparasitic and increasing the average daily weight gain of body weight, improving the absorption of feed. Cocidostatics accumulate in the liver, muscles of birds, can negatively affect consumer health.
Compound feed for chickens - nutritional value in growing periods
|The content of batteries,%||The first week of life (daily energy need - 3000 kcal / kg)||8-28 days (daily need for energy - 2900 kcal / kg)||29-45 days (daily energy need - 2800 kcal / kg)|
When young quails finish the 4-week age, the third, the last period of cultivation begins. They consume more and more food, therefore the concentration of individual ingredients may be lower.
Compared to other poultry birds, quail is worse to synthetic food components, so the replacement of natural vitamins for synthetic significantly reduces the viability and productivity of birds. Throughout the year, you need to try to provide green grass and hay.
Fattening on meat
At slaughter they go quail at the age of 6 weeks. In the case of slaughter birds, food in the first 2 growing periods is identical with non-shells. In the last, third period, the ration of slaughter birds changes. Fourth week you can easily distinguish the float floor. The females are heavier, their carcass has better culinary qualities. However, by economic reasons for slaughter, quail males are usually used. If birds refill the meat direction, it is recommended to keep females and males separately. So quail becomes calmer, they grow rapidly.
The goal of refill is an increase in body weight due to an increase in adipose tissue. Refilled, increasing fatty, quailing should eat only grain feed - corn grain is used, wheat. A set of adipose tissue lasts 2 - 3 weeks.
Quail diseases, treatment and prevention
Quail is completely domesticated, dependent and are familiar to people who should create optimal environmental conditions necessary to maintain a high level of health and egg production. Inadequate environmental, hygienic conditions, lack of nutrition negatively affect bird health, reduce productivity.
Thanks to the cultivation of quails in closed rooms, on the lattice floors, they are less susceptible to infections than other types of birds.
All sickness of quail can be divided into the following types:
- diseases caused by dilution in the wrong environment (humidity, drafts);
- improper nutrition (mineral, vitamin, protein disadvantages);
- invasive diseases (internal and external parasites);
- Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, mushrooms, simplest.
The most frequent quailing diseases: salmonellosis, poisoning, diarrhea, chiccteriosis, rickets, pullorosis quail, aspergillosis, pseudocheuma, cholera, contamination with helminths, loss and blockage of the eggs, Qatar goiter.
Lack of nutrition elements and its consequences
Quail is sensitive to disadvantages of protein, minerals, vitamins in the stern:
|Lack of battery element||Effects|
|Too little protein|| |
|Low phosphorus and calcium content|| |
|Lack of manganese|| |
|Lack of manganese||Quail Disease, called Peroz or Hondrodystrophia (Perosis), manifested in thickening ankle joint, twisting legs to the side|
|Excess fat||The degeneration of liver waster|
|Vitamin A deficiency||Reduces quail health, increasing susceptibility to disease|
|Lack of vitamin E.|| |
|Low Vitamin D3|| |
Why do the quail bend each other?
Pterofiagia - mutual accumulation of feather birds. Sometimes quails peck each other to blood. In some species of birds, this is a behavioral norm, in pteropagia quail causes different reasons:
- power errors;
- hereditary tendency to excessive aggressiveness;
- too large bought birds per unit area;
- insufficient lighting;
- Disadvantages of protein.
Pterophagia is very dangerous, because its frequent consequence is cannibalism.
The simplest and most effective solution that can be done if the quail pecks each other is to reduce a third of the top beak. For this purpose, special guillothes are used, cutting the hot blade of the beaks of quail, which reduces the bleeding and extends the period of rustling of cut beak.
There are also all sorts of linings on the beaks, preventing the roaring and cannibalization of quails.
Photo. Pads on the beak quail, to prevent pterophagia
Quail disease is caused by e. coli pathogenic serotypes. Dangerous quail disease causes significant mortality to 80-90%.
- lack of vitamins;
- bird power errors;
- Bad ventilation;
- infected water.
- In adults, the disease is manifested by diarrhea;
- loss of appetite;
- Difficulties in motion.
Disease can be warned by:
- proper feeding of quails;
- proper hygiene breeding;
- Exceptions of weak birds.
The disease causes Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. Dangerous disease of poultry caused by poor environmental conditions:
- insufficient ventilation;
- high humidity;
- Vitamin A. deficiency
Mycoplasmosis in quail spreads from sick birds to healthy.
- Quail becomes sluggish;
- reduced appetite;
- slowly grow;
- Falling egg production.
Disease caused by fungi.
Sources of infection:
- mold mulch;
- Flood food.
Infection occurs through the respiratory system of birds, the digestive tract.
- disappearance of appetite;
- Weakness appears;
- bad coordination of movements;
Mortality of young quails - 60%.
Prevention of diseases, isolation from the herd of patients
Many quail diseases are accompanied by similar symptoms. Breeders do not always know that the low profitability of the tribal quail is due precisely high incidence. Diseases are more often found in the following cases:
- The herd contained in the mud, tester;
- in poor ventilated rooms;
- With malfunction.
Therefore, it should be accurately followed by all the rules of breeding, maintaining and feeding quail. It is necessary to constantly prevent the appearance of diseases, first of all, using hygienic procedures.
Basic hygiene measures for home quail breeding:
- Drinkers of birds need to be rushing under running water every day, especially since they usually pass along the entire length of the cell, and the infection spreads on them like fire.
- Feeders wash 1-2 times a week.
- The litter is removed every day, and only in special cases, for example, the content of quails one by dividation, you can clean the cell from litter every other day, that is, every day half of the cells.
- Heating batteries deactivate every month, and metal and plastics - every 3 months. For this purpose, birds are removed from the cell, the batteries wash the brush moistened in the solution of the economic soap.
- The walls of the cells are also washed with a household soap, rinsed under running water.
- The gaps, the corners are cleaned with kitchen enshik.
- Wooden quails cells score from litter with a spatula and a wire brush, washed with a solution of fresh lime with the addition of 3% formalin using a Malayan gun. Specialized disinfectants are also useful.
Processing and disinfection
Cell processing for various diseases
|The disease is quail||Tool processing|
|Propy infections (coccidiosis)||5-8% ammonia aqueous solution|
|Salmonalez Quail|| |
Cell for quail
Often dilution and content of quail is carried out in cells. Below are several recommendations as to how the cell should look like.
Due to the lack of manufacturers' proposals, most breeders decide to make a cage on their own. The shape and size of the framework depends on the ingenuity of a person manufacturing a cell.
When creating cells to keep quailing non-shells, some of the following rules must be observed:
- The maximum number of adult quails per square meter of the floor is 40 birds.
- It is important that the bird cells are made of galvanized materials, it will extend the service life of the cell, because the bird may be strongly affected by metal elements.
- The height of the quail cell should be 20-25 cm, it will provide air access, lighting, prevent bird risk during high jumps.
- Cell walls must be made of a wire mesh with cells 1.0-1.3 cm or rods located at a distance of 1.3 cm. Big holes can lead to the jams of the bird's heads, as a result of birds chry.
- The floor is needed open with cells with a size of no more than 1 cm, larger holes can lead to the injury of quail foot.
- The grille in non-pass cells should be slightly tilted forward and end in such a way as to stop the egg. Under the grille, install the pallet for the litter.
- The pallet for litter is better to produce from plastic, because it does not corrodies. In the case of metal trays, you need to make 2 trays about a stock by one cell.
- Quail feeders are placed outside the cell, the bird should be able to get to the feeders through the corresponding holes in the cell. The placement of the feeder in the cell will lead to the fact that the feed will be constantly spread. Quail very much like to scatter feed with a beak, breaking in them with their paws.
- Feeders should have a height of 6-7 cm, performed from galvanized steel, plastic tube with holes. Calculation of the length of the feeders - 0.4 cm feeders on 1 bird.
- Drinkers can be placed in a cage and outside, but on the raised surface, so as not to pollute the food of food that they love to scatter.
- Drinking bowls are made of stainless steel, you can use properly prepared flower pots. Water should always be clean.
Incubators for quail
The incubation of the eggs of quail - the process is not easy due to a small chick-sized, but some breeders choose this type of breeding. For this purpose, it is necessary to equip professional incubators providing birds the best conditions for growth.
It should be remembered that the successful incubation of quail consists of many factors:
- Weather conditions in which an incubated egg is demolished;
- the period of proper storage of the egg;
- appropriate temperature;
- optimal humidity;
- Proper ventilation of eggs in the process of incubation.
Good afternoon, experienced and novice poultry farms! Secrets and advice on the successful cultivation of quail at home from scratch in our material. Photo and video to help you.
Now the majority of people living in private houses are engaged in growing different healthy livelihoods. The most miniature, unpretentious in care, quick to return useful meat and eggs are quail. As the practice of domestic and foreign breeders shows, this bird gets along well with rabbits, nurses, broorals.
If the arsenal has all the inventory used in the cultivation of quail, then a couple of weeks can get dietary meat.
Below we will look at the secrets who willingly shared an experienced poultry farmer dealing with over thirteen years.
Cultivation of quail at home from scratch
If you are planning to do the bird in question, then take care of two cell versions in advance. They are made from different materials, but the design of the same type.
The first type of cells is made from the bar and plywood (walls, ceiling), only the floors and the facade are from the grid, and the second is completely from the grid. The mesh floor, which goes into the collection for eggs, is under a slope so that the eggs demolished rolled into the tray collection.
This allows you to collect eggs, without opening the cage, and avoid rolling the eggs themselves. The feeder in both types of cells is located outside on the front (facade) wall, which is very convenient.
Birds peck the feed, leaking the head through the mesh cell (25 x 50 mm), and at the same time they do not scatter it, because the edges of the feeders are bent a little inside. Yes, and loosen their paws of quail feed are not able to do, although they like to do it if the feeder is inside the cell.
Why two types of cells? Of course, over time you can determine the most acceptable design for you.
Types of cream:
1 - a cup with an inverted plastic bottle;
2 - Nipple dial.
To collect litter, each cell is equipped with a pallet, which is easy to get, clean and return to the place. This design allows you to put cells in two or more tiers.
If the cells are made in compliance with all the rules of bird keeping, then care is minimized - pour food (feed, crushed wheat grain or corn), pour water into the container (bottle or canister) and remove the litter.
In the season it is helpful to indulge your pets with fresh grass (very love!), Which places over the feed in the feeder, as well as grated carrots.
What kind of quail breed choose?
It is more efficient to breed several breeds, for example, Texas, Estonian and Golden Phoenix. All of them belong to meat-eggs, and separate some one breed is impossible - the egg production is approximately the same, feed consumption is also, except that in appearance is more beautiful, of course, golden phoenix.
In the photo California breed quail.
Cells are better to place on the street in the housekeeping box, insulated from the inside. Doors are located on two walls: in the summer - mesh to save quail from the heat, in winter - insulated. Even in a 20-degree frost, the temperature in the box does not fall below 15 degrees. (Heated - 100 W Light Bulb).
By the way, when the content of quails in the basement or utility rooms in the house you will have to fight not only with the smell of feces, but also dust (these crumbs are very "dusty"). Nevertheless, some amateur poultry farms manage to settle the quail on the balcony.
In the northern regions with cold winters, it is important to create a comfortable microclimate for quailing, since due to inappropriate conditions of content in the bird, productivity indicators are strongly reduced. Add to this case due to diseases.
The guarantors of the maximum manifestation of genetic potential include a warm, dry room with regular air exchange. During the cold periods of the year, 1.5 m cubic meters should be updated every hour. On kilo weight, in warm - 5 m cubic meters.
Important! Carrying and drafts are different things!
The second is harmful to the health of the bird and negatively affect its productivity. If you have noticed that quails began to lose feathers, and the time of molts has not yet come, then, most likely, the herd suffers from drafts.
As for lighting, the poultry is desirable to equip the sources of artificial light - 40-50-watts incandescent lamps. A good solution will be the use of luminescent lighting devices (LDZ-40). An adult flock requires a 20-hour day day.
First, the cultivation of quail at home is recommended for relative humidity - 65% (+/- 10%).
Secondly, the temperature optimum is 21 degrees. (+/- 3-4 degrees.)
Feeding and growing quail at home
Much in poultry farming depends on feeding, especially in our case, when the cellular content system is used.
In the diet, quail 30-33% falls on protein feed. Protein deficiency is the reason for reducing the quantitative qualities of egg productivity. When a bird lacks protein, she begins to smear his own and other people. If you move to the protein feeds, the nurses will begin to carry 2-yolk eggs that are not suitable for incubation.
Important! Old individuals and decorative feathers cost protein vegetable origin, that is, grain.
The percentage of carbohydrate feed in the diet of quail - approximately 60%.
Daily adult bird feed two to three times and at a certain time, which positively affects the conversion of feed. 40% of the feed mix (feed) is fed in the evening. It is usually given grain. Why? This feed is digested longer, and therefore the bird remains full throughout the night.
Approximate diet of 6-10 days of young presented:
- Grain - 8 g;
- Bran wheat - 5 g;
- Dry animals feed - 1 g;
- Fresh greens, rerox, cottage cheese - 10 g; Shell - 0.5 g
A feed mixture of a 61-90-day bird consists of grain - 115 g, bran - 15 g, food meat residues - 20 g, greenery - 40 g, shells, bone flour and salt - 2.2, 2.5 and 0.3 G.
Probably you guessed that this is a set of summer feed, as greens are present in rations.
As a rule, the amount of feed consumed by a non-dryer per day varies in the range of 23-28 g.
Important! Cutting with carbohydrate feeds is the cause of obesity of non-drying and, accordingly, lowering the reproductive ability, including egg production.
Beginner birds will be easier to live when using full-ration combined feed mixtures, designed purely for quail.
Thus, the resulting feed industry for 1-3-week young people offering the feed of the PC grade 5-41, and for 7-52-week nurses - PC 1-24.
Often it is possible to hear that in the feed database of quail, we use feed feed, faded by nursing chickens. Indeed, this is so, but such food has to enrich protein sources. It is difficult to believe, but the feed mixture was relevant, originally developed for parrots. It is introduced protein, vitamin and mineral supplements.
Let's go back to your own feeds. Of course, the greens are unavailable in winter. Alternative to her serves carrots with cabbage, germinated grain.
Cultivation of quail in private distance video
1. First, avoid faster shifts of feeding types.
2. Secondly, refuse to use as a basis for a potato beam mixture - negatively affects the work and state of the poultry digestive system.
3. Third, each newly imported batch Meat, Fish, Bone Flour Check on quality. How it's done? Adhere to the following scheme: feed + boiling water, 30-minute settling. With the appearance of a sharp smell, brand feed!
4. The feed in which bones (for example, biennic waste) are pre-grinding.
5. By the way, poison the bird with hemp and flax seeds. This is one of the favorite delicacies. However, consider the abuse of such an additive leads to problems with the organs of vision, obesity, the accumulation of syntic acid.
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The most minor representatives of the feathers are quail. These small birds are unpretentious, care for them is simple, so even a novice farmer can dilute them.
Why it is worth growing quails - economic benefits
Quail has high productivity and accelerated metabolism. The female with wetting 120 g gives up to 300 eggs per year, while the total mass of eggs is 20 times higher than quail weight. By nutritional properties, quail eggs are more useful than chicken, they do not contain cholesterol. Use them in the raw form, since the quail is not subject to salmonellosis. At the age of 50 days, quail can already postpone eggs. Their egg production is up to 300 eggs per year or more. They grow very quickly, chicks are leaning two weeks after birth.
The breeding of quail is beneficial for the following reasons:
- easy care and content;
- low cost of buying eggs to eliminate incubator;
- Fast result.
Dilsert quails to obtain low-fat dietary meat and eggs. This is a very profitable business for which you do not need large investments, it is possible to start with the breeding of a small number of birds that can be kept in the barn. Birds grown for meat have weight up to 300 g with a small number of eggs. When breeding, for the sake of obtaining eggs, their weight does not exceed 200 g, but for the year from one quail you can get more than 300 eggs weighing 10-12 g. The chicks are hatched after bookmarking in an incubator after 18 days.
Meat dietary, contains minerals, amino acids, vitamin V. With long-term storage, does not lose useful properties. Five eggs by weight are equal to one chicken, but exceed it in the content of vitamins and other substances:
- nicotine acid;
- Iron more than 4.5 times;
- potassium - 5 times;
- Vitamins B1, B2, A.
Thanks to the use of meat and eggs, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are treated, a number of skin diseases, derived from the body of the effects of radiation irradiation.
Quail breeding is possible in two versions:
- To meet your own needs for meat and eggs. In this case, it is enough to have 10-30 individuals. For such a number of quails, you can make a cage, placing it in any free place at home.
- Own business. The organization of home business for beginners is recommended from the purchase of 500 birds. In the case of a successful start in a year, it is possible to increase the livestock to 5000. For the organization of the poultry farms, it is necessary to allocate a separate room. A large number of birds are conveniently contained in 10-12 cellular batteries.
When the targets are defined, you can start the equipment, the purchase of cells, the choice of quail breed.
Bird breeds - how to make a reasonable choice?
Quail is the smallest representative of the chicken squad. The weight of the adult bird is 80-150 g, the growth is 20 cm. Birds of a motley color, the males have a darker goiter, dark spots, missing in females. Female larger males, reach weight 250 g
Many breeds of these birds are derived, each breed has its own characteristics. So that you can find the goals needed to implement the goals, we will describe their main characteristics.
Texas. The broiler-type meat breed, in terms of receiving meat, is ahead of others. Snow-white color, there are birds with black splashes. The physique is large with a wide, rounded breast. The average weight indicators - 250. If correctly feed, it is possible to achieve weight 550 g. For fattening you need to use special feed. It is necessary to follow the weight, the cobbled quarrels lose the ability to ride. Fucks leave males. Eggs are large, weighing about 12 g, egg production - up to 280 eggs per year.
Manchurian. The most popular breed in the world. Birds possess a beautiful opera, consisting of yellow and brown feathers. The female can be distinguished in black marctics on the chest, which is not the individual of the male. The breed refers to meat-egg type. For the year, the female can carry up to 180 eggs, they are large, weight averages up to 18 g. The weight of adults is 150 g, with high-quality feeding you can achieve a big weight - 300 g.
Pharaoh. The breed of the meat direction. A distinctive feature is a good meat carcass. Feathers are grayish brown, outwardly similar to wild quails. The females differ from males with white and black stripes on the chest, great weight. The weight of the female on average - 300 g, the male weighs less. The breed is distinguished by rapid ripening, need a balanced stern. Two-month quails can be sent to slaughter. The egg laying in females begins in 45 days. Eggs weigh up to 15 g. Egg stage is 200 eggs per year.
California. Birds hold more as a decorative rock due to external beauty. It is unprofitable to breed them: low chick survival, low productivity. Contain it is necessary in the conditions as close as possible to natural, otherwise quail will lose their decorativeness.
Japanese. The breed of three directions were removed: meat, egg and mixed. The color of the rust-brown feathers. Quail have a darker collar zone than females. The weight of the individual depends on the direction, on average, it is 150 g. Egg production is high - over a year more than 300 eggs.
Tuxedo. The breed is obtained by crossing the English quail and birds with a color of white feathers and black. These are beautiful major individuals. Color feathers resembles a tuxedo: a chest of light color, a back of a darker color. The weight of birds is small: the males weigh 150 g, females - 180. Therefore, they are bred more for beauty. Egg stage is high - 280 eggs per year.
Proper feeding - Pledge of health and productivity
For feeding adult cakes, drinkers and feeders are delivered beyond the cells. The tank of the groove type is fixed around the perimeter from the outer side of the cells. Quails for quenching thirst and hunger have to turn the head, so in cells it is easier to maintain purity.
Feed is given in the calculation of 30 g per person two or three times a day. The females, which are bred to produce eggs, is more suitable for balanced food for nuclear hens. It is possible to add waste from the garden, greens, grain, fruit. It is necessary to give food strictly according to the scheme, overeating leads to obesity and decrease in egg production.
To ensure quail balanced power in their menu, include:
- feed for Curry;
- Vegetables: cabbage, raw or boiled potatoes, carrots;
- Oats, barley, millet, wheat;
- sunflower seeds;
- cottage cheese;
- crushed seashells, egg shell, gross chalk;
- Greens: onions, clover, gear wheat, salad;
- fish flour;
- fish fat;
- Crushed fish in boiled or cheese.
It is impossible to feed the buckwheat, barley, parsley, celery, greens from tomato, potatoes, buttercourse and grated plants, such a nutrition causes their stomach disorder and poisoning.
In the drill, pour warm boiled water. Change it regularly to be fresh and clean. Apply micropartic, vacuum, groove and nipple drinkers. Wash the tank daily.
The ceremonies of the meat direction are searched by sexual sign and begin to refill on meat. Indoor, where they are contained, maintain a temperature of 22 degrees and low light. Feeding meat breeds has its own specifics. Feed give four times a day, large portions. In the morning give green food, in the second - grain waste. The bird is ready for a taste, if reached the appropriate mass, usually the fattening period is 60 days. 6 hours before slaughter, the birds cease to give food, leave only drinkers.
Content and care - how much space and what light needed quail?
In the wild, quail is migratory birds, the domestication is poorly, so they are contained in cells. To grow healthy and strong birds with good egg production, you need to create appropriate conditions with mandatory observance of the temperature and light regime, to provide high-quality protein food.
The basic requirements required for comfortable content at home:
- The premises for the cultivation of quails can be highlighted in the barn on the household site or dacha, in the apartment you can adapt the loggia, warming it for in the winter, and the garage is suitable in urban conditions. It is important that the room is warm, dry, well ventilated. The windows may be absent, but for the sake of electricity saving, their presence is desirable.
- Indoors require good ventilation. For each kilogram, quail weight is needed more than 5 sq. M / h of fresh air in summer and 1.5 sq.m / h in winter. Therefore, when cultivating quails in the apartment, the cell is better accommodated near the window or on a warmed loggia.
- Despite the need of fresh air, quail susceptible to drafts. If there are drafts in the room, feathers fall out in the birds, egg production decreases. Therefore, for winter content, the room needs to be well insulated.
- Quails need light, but not very bright. The daylight light is not suitable for them, since there is a lot of light, birds are excited, cannibalism is possible. The incandescent lamp is suitable for 40 W or luminescent LDC-40.
- It is important to maintain the air humidity at no lower than 55%. If the humidity is insufficient, the quail drink a lot of water, the operense becomes brittle, egg production drops. It is unacceptable and increased humidity exceeding 75%. Potimal indicator is 60-70%.
- Important parameter - air temperature. Birds feel comfortable at room temperature 20-22 degrees. The limit lower temperature is 18 degrees, the top is 25 degrees. If the temperature is below 18 degrees, quails stop rushing.
Quail is convenient to contain in the cell. They can be purchased ready or made from a cellular mesh and plywood. The sizes and forms of cells may be arbitrary. On one adult quail it is necessary to take the area of 100-120 kV. See the height of the cells should not be made more than 25 cm, since frightened quail trying to take off, they can fall and cridden. According to zootechnical standards, 80 to 100 individuals can be placed on one square meter.
It is desirable to shoot the mesh with a slope towards the feeders. Quails do not need pestes, they put eggs to the floor. In the front wall make a slot for rolling eggs into a special chute. Under the floor to collect the litter, a metallic or plastic pallet is installed. The litter needs to be removed daily. If the litter of straw, chips, paper or hay, it also needs to be changed every day. On the front wall from the outside, drinkers and feeders are fixed.
On poultry farms with the number of livestock more than 700 pieces, complexes are used, which are multi-tiered cellular batteries in which up to 250 individuals are placed.
The complex includes several cells with feeders, drinking and collections for eggs. Such a complex can be constructed independently of metal sheets, cellular grid and plywood. In summer, the cells can be taken on fresh air.
Growing chicks - why do you need an incubator?
Quail can carry eggs without quail, but if they are breeded, then the presence of male is necessary. For breeding, buy young 1-1.5 months old. Chicks are easier to transfer the place of residence. Buying chicks, inspect everyone. In healthy individuals:
- dry beak, without defects;
- average weight, they do not look exhausted, nor overlapped;
- Clean operenses around a clock;
- pure breathing, without wheezing;
- Clean feathers, without excrement and dirt.
For masonry and further reproduction, pick up quails with age from 3 to 6 months, females - from 3 to 8 months. Corporate links should be avoided. To get eggs for the incubator, males and females together in the ratio of 1: 4 or 1: 3. If birds contain separately in sexual sign, then quails are planted for 15 minutes. With this method, fertilization is 80%. For high-quality offspring, the herd is updated in three months. As a result of the selection of quail, the instinct of the nasal was lost, so incubators are needed to obtain offspring.
Incubator can be bought in factory or make it yourself, adapting a chicken incubator for this. A special grid or trays are purchased for small eggs. 400 eggs are placed in a small incubator.
With homemade manufacturing of the incubator, we carry out the following actions:
- In the box of cardboard on the bottom of the stele soft litter;
- on top of a flexible lamp on 40 W or with red light;
- Install the thermometer;
- adjusting the height of the lamp, we achieve a temperature inside the box of 37-38.5 degrees;
- To maintain moisture, near the box, we establish a water container;
- We place on the litter no more than 20 eggs.
Chicks hatch on the 18th day, it is necessary to carefully care for them from the first days. If you comply with the necessary temperature regime - 38-38.9 degrees and air humidity maintain at least 50%, ensure an automatic or semi-automatic enemy coup, then the percentage of chicks that appeared very high. If there is no automatic turning, the eggs need to be turned over 3-5 times a day. The brood appears within 6 hours.
Quail chicks have fluffs of brown with two light stripes on the back. They are very mobile. From the first days they are better to contain in a carton or plywood box - Bruber. On the bottom of the boxes are laying either a small grid with a pallet or a steer paper. IMPORTANT IN BRODERA Maintain a specific temperature. The first two weeks it should not be below 38 degrees. The temperature in which the chicks are comfortable can be determined by their behavior.
If they are frown, then they are going to a bunch. In addition, a complete light day is supported, it stimulates chicks, they are more often suitable for feeders, grow faster. Starting from the 15th day, the temperature is reduced to 25 degrees. It is impossible to drastically reduce the temperature, jumps threaten with weakening and death of chicks. Upon reaching 1 month, young people should be accustomed to room temperature - 20-22 degrees. It is translated on a 12-hour day day. When quails at the age of 1.5 months begin to rush, the light day do 17 hours.
To ensure, we quiet minerals and vitamins from the first days to them give high-quality feed for young, containing all the necessary substances. In their absence, it is possible to give a crushed boiled egg. The first 7 days per chick is 3-4 g of feed, by the month, the norm is 15-16 g per day. If there is a feed, it must be removed, otherwise it will proceed, the chicks will be poisoned.
On the fourth day, quate fed crushed crumbling corn, a militant, wheat bench fine grinding, feed for young, cottage cheese. In the period from 8 to 20 day, chicks give only feed, you can grind and add meat waste, carrots, greens. Quail water is obtained from vacuum dripping so that they do not drown. Water must be boiled.
After 20 days, quail transplanted into the cells for the content of adults and translate into the appropriate feed. At the same time, they sort them on the floor and direction: meat, egg. On the color you can determine the floor: the females of the neck and chest are light gray to the speck, the males have these places are red-brown with rules. After 45 days, the egg layout comes in most breeds.
What to do to birds do not hurt?
Growing quails, follow the behavior of birds. If you notice that the individual behaves passively, moves little, sit down from other birds and consult with the veterinarian. When obtaining physical injury as a result of a lack of space or due to bright light, transform a particular cell to recovery. The cause of the death of quail is often too intensive laying. In this case, reduce the day, reduce the protein content in the feed.
Pay attention to the consistency and color of excrement. If quail is healthy, litter dark color with whiten divorces. If it is liquid, dark green, it is a sign of the disease. Yellow excrement talks about the overaffect of carbohydrates. If all the herd replaces, replace the water with tincture on rice or oats.
The disease of the herd may occur for the following reasons:
- bad conditions of detention;
- Channel change;
- lack of nutrients, unbalanced nutrition;
- poor-quality food.
With a lack of nutrients, a violation of the nutritional mode of birds is hung by avitaminosis. Symptoms are manifested in the form:
- loss of appetite;
- laid feathers;
- drawing neck;
- Throwing heads.
With such symptoms, quails change the diet, follow the observance of the feeding mode, increase the nutrient content in the stern.
If the conditions of detention are not respected, the following diseases are possible:
- Feather falling;
- Egg fence.
Check whether the conditions of content standards are responsible, and adjust them if necessary: reduce the number of heads in the cell, change the brightness of the lighting, enter the missing minerals and vitamins in the diet. After these actions, the symptoms disappear, and birds come back to normal.